Diabetic coma is more often in people with Type 1 diabetes, but it can occure to people with type 2 diabetes. It is an unconscious state and you can not be awaken from it without medical intervention.
There are three causes of diabetic coma :
- diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA)
- diabetic hyperosmolar nonketotic syndrom in type 2 diabetes
Diabetic ketoacidosis : If you do not receive treatment for hyperglycemia it can result diabetic keto-acidosis , because there is no more enough insulin circulatinng the blood, so cells can not get the glucose they need to produce energy. As result your body takes fats and proteins as an alternative source of energy. In process of breaking down proteins and fats in your blood acummulate keton bodies resulting ketosis. If ketons build up to dangerously high levels in your blood stream you can develope Diabetic ketoacidosis , which can lead to coma and death.
Hypoglicemia : if you take an excessive dose od diabetic medicaton you may experience an acute complication called hypoglycemia . Excessive insulin causes to much glucose to go into cells leaving an insufficient amont of glucose in your blood stream. If your glucose levels continues to drop , that results diabetic coma.
Diabetic hyperosmolar nonketotic syndrom : As the insulin deficiency continues your blood glucose levels increases. In response your kidneys filter excess glucose out of the blood into urine along with large amount of water , and unless you consume large amounts of water , your kidneys caan not keep up with the demand of removing the glucose from your blood stream . As a result your blood becomes much more concentrated than normal and that condition is called hyperosmolarity. Hyperosmolarity pulls water out of your body tisues ontto your blood stream causing severe dehydration which may lead hyperosmolar hyperglycemic nonketotic syndrome, andthis leads to coma.
Symptoms of coma when it is caused by hypoglycemia :
- sudden tiredness
- shaky hands
- anxiety or irritability
- extreme and sudden hunger
when it is caused by high blood sugar levels :
- unsteady walking or loss of balance
- slowed breathing
- increased thirst and urination
- sweet fruity breath
- abdominal pain
The treatment of diabetes is most important for preventing diabetic coma.