Type 1 Diabetes Medications and Type 2 Diabetes Medications
People with diabetes often need additional medications other changing their lifestyles. Diabetes medications are aimed at controlling blood pressure, blood fats and also controlling their diabetes. However, taking diabetes medications should be seen as a supplement to eating the recommended diet and carrying out regular exercises.
Type 1 diabetes medications
The aim of Type 1 diabetes medication is to keep the blood sugar as close as possible to the normal level and to avoid developing any diabetes complications. The blood glucose level is maintained between 70mg/dL to 130 mg/dL before meals, and not higher than 180mg/dL after meals.
Type 1 diabetes involves the following medications:
Insulin – Type 1 diabetes patients need to take insulin. After some time with taking insulin, diabetics undergo a period called honeymoon, whereby they can live with no or with little insulin. The types of Insulin can be classified into:
• Intermediate options
• Long-acting insulin
• Rapid-acting insulin
Long acting insulin include detemir and glargine. Note that enzymes in the stomach can interfere with the action of insulin, and thus insulin is not taken orally but through insulin pump or injections. When using injections, use a syringe and a fine needle to inject it under your skin.
Artificial pancreas – in this, an insulin pump is connected to a continuous glucose monitor. When the monitor indicates the need for insulin, the pump releases it in the correct amount. The monitor also stops the delivery of insulin when blood glucose is too low. The first artificial pancreas was introduced in 2013.
Medications for high blood pressure – for diabetics whose blood pressure is above 140/80 mm hg, high blood pressure medications may be prescribed.
Aspirin – these may be prescribed for you to protect your heart.
Pramlintide (Symlin) – it may be recommended that you inject yourself with this medication to prevent the sharp rise in blood sugar immediately after meals.
Type 2 diabetes medications
Type 2 diabetes patients can control their blood glucose level close to normal by exercise and diet only, but medications are also recommended.
The common medications for Type 2 diabetes include the following:
Insulin therapy - today, insulin is prescribed to Type 2 diabetes patients sooner. Insulin is injected under the skin using a syringe and a needle.
Meglitinides – these medications lead to secretion of more insulin by the body. They stay in the body while active for long. They are fast in reaction.
Sulfonylureas – also, they make the body to secrete more insulin.
Metformin – it is the first medication prescribed to Type 2 diabetes patients. Makes the body tissues to utilize insulin more effectively, by making these tissues more sensitive to insulin.
***Other Type 2 diabetes medications include DPP-4 inhibitors, SGLT2 inhibitors and GLP-1 receptor agonists.