What Is Diabetes? and What Causes Diabetes?

Diabetes is characterised by high level of glucose in blood that is called hyperglycemia. Diabetes mellitus by the definition of WHO ( world health organisation ) is a state of chronic hyperglycemia caused by numerous of genetic and environmental factors. Uncontrolled diabetes is the leading cause of blindness.




Adults with diabetes have 2-4 times the rate of heart disease. 60- 70 % of people with diabetes have some form of nerves system damage. Diabetes is the leading cause of kidney failure. Diabetes is connected in most cases with lack of insuline.

Today we can measure insuline in blood, so we do not define diabetes like a full deficiency of insuline but as the state where organism does not have enough quantity of insuline. For understand this it is important to know more about insuline.


Insuline is a protein, and has two basic functions :

  • increases penetration of glucose into our cells but also increases the transport of amino acids into them ;
  • reduces sensitivity of adipose tissue to lipase and thereby reduces the level of free adipose acids in blood.


So we can see that without enough insuline the glucose can not enter in our cells and it cant be converted into energy so unfortunately glucose that we eat by food just stays in our blood. Liver receives blood glucose but in lack of insuline it is been immediately releaced into blood. Glucose in blood can not be used to give us energy to do all our daily activities .


Normal value of glucose in blood is : less than 6,1 mmol / l. The value of glucose when we have diabetes is higher than 7 mmol/ l . There are two types of diabetes : diabetes type 1 and type 2 . The main difference between these two kinds of diabetes is that in the type 1 the level of insulin in blood is to low, in the type 2 the cause is reduced cell sensitivity on insulin. People with type 1 diabetes need to take insulin shoots right from the beginning of their therapy, and people with Type 2 sometimes can reduce their blood glucose levels just by taking care of their nutrition and exercise more, they often have to take some medicine, but insulin shoots are not always needed.


The only way we can reduce the possibility to get diabetes is to live a healthy life, that means regular physical activity, proper nutrition and of course less stress.

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