In fact, high blood pressure is very common with diabetes, as two in three adults with diabetes also have high blood pressure, according to the American Diabetes Association (ADA). High blood pressure doesn't always have noticeable symptoms and you may not know you have it unless your doctor checks. Still, it can lead to serious complications including heart attack, stroke, eye problems, and kidney disease.
^ Pignone M, Alberts MJ, Colwell JA, Cushman M, Inzucchi SE, Mukherjee D, Rosenson RS, Williams CD, Wilson PW, Kirkman MS (June 2010). "Aspirin for primary prevention of cardiovascular events in people with diabetes: a position statement of the American Diabetes Association, a scientific statement of the American Heart Association, and an expert consensus document of the American College of Cardiology Foundation". Diabetes Care. 33 (6): 1395–402. doi:10.2337/dc10-0555. PMC 2875463. PMID 20508233.
Type 2 diabetes has long been known to progress despite glucose-lowering treatment, with 50% of individuals requiring insulin therapy within 10 years (1). This seemingly inexorable deterioration in control has been interpreted to mean that the condition is treatable but not curable. Clinical guidelines recognize this deterioration with algorithms of sequential addition of therapies. Insulin resistance and β-cell dysfunction are known to be the major pathophysiologic factors driving type 2 diabetes; however, these factors come into play with very different time courses. Insulin resistance in muscle is the earliest detectable abnormality of type 2 diabetes (2). In contrast, changes in insulin secretion determine both the onset of hyperglycemia and the progression toward insulin therapy (3,4). The etiology of each of these two major factors appears to be distinct. Insulin resistance may be caused by an insulin signaling defect (5), glucose transporter defect (6), or lipotoxicity (7), and β-cell dysfunction is postulated to be caused by amyloid deposition in the islets (8), oxidative stress (9), excess fatty acid (10), or lack of incretin effect (11). The demonstration of reversibility of type 2 diabetes offers the opportunity to evaluate the time sequence of pathophysiologic events during return to normal glucose metabolism and, hence, to unraveling the etiology.
Fortunately, if sleep deprivation lasts only a few days, these effects can be reversed—and insulin levels can improve—with as little as two full nights of sleep (nearly 10 hours per night). This is comforting to know when you’re in a pinch and need to stay up late for several consecutive nights to meet a deadline or deal with a family emergency. But don’t make this a habit. In the long run, it’s best to try to get seven to nine hours of uninterrupted sleep on a nightly basis so you can feel and function optimally and reduce your risk of developing type 2 diabetes and other health problems.
People with glucose levels between normal and diabetic have impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) or insulin resistance. People with impaired glucose tolerance do not have diabetes, but are at high risk for progressing to diabetes. Each year, 1% to 5% of people whose test results show impaired glucose tolerance actually eventually develop diabetes. Weight loss and exercise may help people with impaired glucose tolerance return their glucose levels to normal. In addition, some physicians advocate the use of medications, such as metformin (Glucophage), to help prevent/delay the onset of overt diabetes.
There is no known preventive measure for type 1 diabetes. Type 2 diabetes—which accounts for 85–90% of all cases worldwide—can often be prevented or delayed by maintaining a normal body weight, engaging in physical activity, and eating a healthy diet. Higher levels of physical activity (more than 90 minutes per day) reduce the risk of diabetes by 28%. Dietary changes known to be effective in helping to prevent diabetes include maintaining a diet rich in whole grains and fiber, and choosing good fats, such as the polyunsaturated fats found in nuts, vegetable oils, and fish. Limiting sugary beverages and eating less red meat and other sources of saturated fat can also help prevent diabetes. Tobacco smoking is also associated with an increased risk of diabetes and its complications, so smoking cessation can be an important preventive measure as well.
Onset of type 2 diabetes can be delayed or prevented through proper nutrition and regular exercise.[needs update] Intensive lifestyle measures may reduce the risk by over half. The benefit of exercise occurs regardless of the person's initial weight or subsequent weight loss. High levels of physical activity reduce the risk of diabetes by about 28%. Evidence for the benefit of dietary changes alone, however, is limited, with some evidence for a diet high in green leafy vegetables and some for limiting the intake of sugary drinks. There is an association between higher intake of sugar-sweetened fruit juice and diabetes but no evidence of an association with 100% fruit juice. A 2019 review found evidence of benefit from dietary fiber.
The risk of diabetes varies by ethnic and geographic background. In the United States, the disease is most common in Native Americans and Alaska Natives. It also has a higher prevalence among people of African American or Hispanic ancestry than those of non-Hispanic white or Asian ancestry. Geographically, diabetes is most prevalent in the southern and Appalachian regions of the United States.
Maybe. You should be tested for diabetes if you are between 40 and 70 years old and are overweight or obese. Your doctor may recommend testing earlier than age 40 if you also have other risk factors for diabetes. Also, talk to your doctor about diabetes testing if you have signs or symptoms of diabetes. Your doctor will use a blood test to see if you have diabetes.
Regular dental visits are important. Research suggests that treating gum disease can help improve blood sugar control in patients living with diabetes, decreasing the progression of the disease. Practicing good oral hygiene and having professional deep cleanings done by your dentist can help to lower your HbA1c. (This is a lab test that shows your average level of blood sugar over the previous three months. It indicates how well you are controlling your diabetes.)
The body’s immune system is responsible for fighting off foreign invaders, like harmful viruses and bacteria. In people with type 1 diabetes, the immune system mistakes the body’s own healthy cells for foreign invaders. The immune system attacks and destroys the insulin-producing beta cells in the pancreas. After these beta cells are destroyed, the body is unable to produce insulin.
You have a higher risk of type 2 diabetes if you are older, have obesity, have a family history of diabetes, or do not exercise. Having prediabetes also increases your risk. Prediabetes means that your blood sugar is higher than normal but not high enough to be called diabetes. If you are at risk for type 2 diabetes, you may be able to delay or prevent developing it by making some lifestyle changes.
There are a number of rare cases of diabetes that arise due to an abnormality in a single gene (known as monogenic forms of diabetes or "other specific types of diabetes"). These include maturity onset diabetes of the young (MODY), Donohue syndrome, and Rabson–Mendenhall syndrome, among others. Maturity onset diabetes of the young constitute 1–5% of all cases of diabetes in young people.
Other potentially important mechanisms associated with type 2 diabetes and insulin resistance include: increased breakdown of lipids within fat cells, resistance to and lack of incretin, high glucagon levels in the blood, increased retention of salt and water by the kidneys, and inappropriate regulation of metabolism by the central nervous system. However, not all people with insulin resistance develop diabetes, since an impairment of insulin secretion by pancreatic beta cells is also required.
American Indian/Alaska Native. American Indian/Alaska Native women have the highest rate of diabetes among all racial and ethnic groups in the United States. It is more than twice as common for American Indian/Alaska Native women to be diagnosed with diabetes compared to white women. But rates of diabetes are different in different regions of the United States. Rates are lowest in Alaska Native people and highest in people who are American Indian and live in certain areas of the Southwest.1
Gestational diabetes, a common complication of pregnancy. Gestational diabetes can lead to perinatal complications in mother and child and substantially increases the likelihood of cesarean section. Gestational diabetes is also a risk factor for the mother and, later in life, the child's subsequent development of type 2 diabetes after the affected pregnancy.
Diabetes Educational Services (DES) has established this website to provide information and education to health care professionals. Nothing in this website constitutes medical advice nor is it a substitute for medical advice. References in this website to any and all specific products, services or processes do not constitute or imply an endorsement or recommendation by Diabetes Educational Services.
In this simple app, you can record your blood sugar, meals, insulin, and medications. If there’s a feature in the app you don’t need, you can switch it off to keep the interface as clean as possible. The app syncs across multiple devices and creates clear graphs and reports so you can see the big picture of your data. If simplicity is your goal, this may be the right app for you.
Diabetes can occur temporarily during pregnancy, and reports suggest that it occurs in 2% to 10% of all pregnancies. Significant hormonal changes during pregnancy can lead to blood sugar elevation in genetically predisposed individuals. Blood sugar elevation during pregnancy is called gestational diabetes. Gestational diabetes usually resolves once the baby is born. However, 35% to 60% of women with gestational diabetes will eventually develop type 2 diabetes over the next 10 to 20 years, especially in those who require insulin during pregnancy and those who remain overweight after their delivery. Women with gestational diabetes are usually asked to undergo an oral glucose tolerance test about six weeks after giving birth to determine if their diabetes has persisted beyond the pregnancy, or if any evidence (such as impaired glucose tolerance) is present that may be a clue to a risk for developing diabetes.
Insulin is vital to patients with type 1 diabetes - they cannot live without a source of exogenous insulin. Without insulin, patients with type 1 diabetes develop severely elevated blood sugar levels. This leads to increased urine glucose, which in turn leads to excessive loss of fluid and electrolytes in the urine. Lack of insulin also causes the inability to store fat and protein along with breakdown of existing fat and protein stores. This dysregulation, results in the process of ketosis and the release of ketones into the blood. Ketones turn the blood acidic, a condition called diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA). Symptoms of diabetic ketoacidosis include nausea, vomiting, and abdominal pain. Without prompt medical treatment, patients with diabetic ketoacidosis can rapidly go into shock, coma, and even death may result.
A great app to add to the list is Wellocity Health. It helps you manage chronic conditions such as heart disease and diabetes by addressing key risk factors. This free app allows users to track medications, vitals and activity and share reports of your progress with your doctor or coach. Actionable insights and realistic goals make it easy to monitor progress and improve. The app also has a built-in community that allow users to share experiences.
^ McBrien K, Rabi DM, Campbell N, Barnieh L, Clement F, Hemmelgarn BR, Tonelli M, Leiter LA, Klarenbach SW, Manns BJ (September 2012). "Intensive and Standard Blood Pressure Targets in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: Systematic Review and Meta-analysis". Archives of Internal Medicine. 172 (17): 1296–303. doi:10.1001/archinternmed.2012.3147. PMID 22868819.
Glucosio is an app for people with type 1 and type 2 diabetes. It monitors important metrics such as weight, hemoglobin A1c, ketones, cholesterol, blood pressure, and more. The app also includes glucose target tools and an HbA1c conversion calculator. Set reminders to keep you in tune with taking medication, working out, and other important tasks. You can share data from the app anonymously if you choose.
Some kids and teens are already using devices that make blood glucose testing and insulin injections easier, less painful, and more effective. One of these is the insulin pump, a mechanical device that can deliver insulin more like the pancreas does. There's also been progress toward the development of a wearable or implantable "artificial pancreas." This consists of an insulin pump linked to a device that measures the person's blood glucose level continuously.
Best of them all I was diagnosed LADA a year ago. Downloaded a bunch of apps and used them all for a month. This one’s easily the winner. Extremely comprehensive, a complete set of features and enough customization to track carb intake; initial no pill and no insulin treatment; then medication only treatment; then long lasting insulin treatment. And I know it’s future proof for when I start the short term insulin and then the pump. Thank you!
Diabetes is one of the first diseases described with an Egyptian manuscript from c. 1500 BCE mentioning "too great emptying of the urine." The first described cases are believed to be of type 1 diabetes. Indian physicians around the same time identified the disease and classified it as madhumeha or honey urine noting that the urine would attract ants. The term "diabetes" or "to pass through" was first used in 230 BCE by the Greek Apollonius Of Memphis. The disease was rare during the time of the Roman empire with Galen commenting that he had only seen two cases during his career.
The extent of weight loss required to reverse type 2 diabetes is much greater than conventionally advised. A clear distinction must be made between weight loss that improves glucose control but leaves blood glucose levels abnormal and weight loss of sufficient degree to normalize pancreatic function. The Belfast diet study provides an example of moderate weight loss leading to reasonably controlled, yet persistent diabetes. This study showed that a mean weight loss of 11 kg decreased fasting blood glucose levels from 10.4 to 7.0 mmol/L but that this abnormal level presaged the all-too-familiar deterioration of control (87).
Rosiglitazone, a thiazolidinedione, has not been found to improve long-term outcomes even though it improves blood sugar levels. Additionally it is associated with increased rates of heart disease and death. Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) prevent kidney disease and improve outcomes in those with diabetes. The similar medications angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) do not. A 2016 review recommended treating to a systolic blood pressure of 140 to 150 mmHg.
Gestational diabetes develops in pregnant women who have never had diabetes. If you have gestational diabetes, your baby could be at higher risk for health problems. Gestational diabetes usually goes away after your baby is born but increases your risk for type 2 diabetes later in life. Your baby is more likely to have obesity as a child or teen, and more likely to develop type 2 diabetes later in life too.