Hispanic. It is more common for Hispanic women than non-Hispanic white women to be diagnosed with diabetes. Among Hispanic women in the United States, it may be more or less common for women of different heritage groups to be diagnosed with diabetes.1 For example, Mexican-American women have almost twice the rate of diabetes diagnosis compared to white women. But Cuban-American women have a lower rate compared to white women.1
Inhalable insulin has been developed.[125] The original products were withdrawn due to side effects.[125] Afrezza, under development by the pharmaceuticals company MannKind Corporation, was approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for general sale in June 2014.[126] An advantage to inhaled insulin is that it may be more convenient and easy to use.[127]
Diabetic nephropathy (kidney damage). This is damage to the blood vessels in your kidneys. This means your kidneys have trouble filtering out waste. Some people who have nephropathy will eventually need dialysis (a machine treatment that eliminates waste from the blood) or a kidney transplant. The risk for nephropathy is increased if you have both diabetes and high blood pressure, so it is important to control both of these conditions. Protein in the urine is usually the first sign of nephropathy. This should be checked yearly.
While there is a strong genetic component to developing this form of diabetes, there are other risk factors - the most significant of which is obesity. There is a direct relationship between the degree of obesity and the risk of developing type 2 diabetes, and this holds true in children as well as adults. It is estimated that the chance to develop diabetes doubles for every 20% increase over desirable body weight.
“We usually see patients quarterly for appointments, which means the other 361 days of the year, they’re on their own,” says endocrinologist Amber Champion, MD, at Great Plains Health in North Platte, Nebraska. “They need to have the knowledge and tools to take care of themselves. Diabetes-related apps can be useful to help keep track of all the data and see it visually. They can also help educate and teach patients to spot trends and keep their data organized.”

This is a special edition of the iCookbook app just for people with diabetes. The app delivers new, free diabetes-friendly recipes every month. It also has built-in kitchen tools like conversion charts and timers and voice activation, so the user can proceed through a recipe even with messy hands. The user can save and share recipes or even pull up a random one by shaking the phone.
Evidence linking hepatic insulin sensitivity to intraorgan triglyceride content has been steadily accumulating. In insulin-treated type 2 diabetes, insulin dose correlates with the extent of fatty liver (35), and in turn, this is associated with insulin sensitivity to suppression of hepatic glucose production (36). Decreasing the fat content of liver is associated with improvement in insulin suppression of glucose production and, thereby, with improvement in fasting plasma glucose (20,23).
Diabetic neuropathy (nerve damage). This makes it hard for your nerves to send messages to your brain and other parts of the body. You may lose feeling in parts of your body or have a painful, tingling, or burning feeling. Neuropathy most often affects the feet and legs. If you have neuropathy, you may not be able to feel a sore on your foot. The sore can become infected. In serious cases, the foot may have to be amputated (removed). People who have neuropathy may continue walking on a foot that has damaged joints or bones. This can lead to a condition called Charcot foot. Charcot foot causes swelling and instability in the injured foot. It can also cause the foot to become deformed. However, this problem can often be avoided. Check your feet every day. See your doctor immediately if you see swelling, redness, and feel warmth in your foot. These can be signs of Charcot foot. Your doctor should also check your feet frequently. Neuropathy also can cause erectile dysfunction in men and vaginal dryness in women.
“We usually see patients quarterly for appointments, which means the other 361 days of the year, they’re on their own,” says endocrinologist Amber Champion, MD, at Great Plains Health in North Platte, Nebraska. “They need to have the knowledge and tools to take care of themselves. Diabetes-related apps can be useful to help keep track of all the data and see it visually. They can also help educate and teach patients to spot trends and keep their data organized.”
This is the only app in the list designed for doctors, one of a series of Johns Hopkins Guides on different diseases. The diabetes guide, which is a $29.99 in-app purchase "contains the essential diagnosis, classification, and management information needed for diabetic care" and enables physicians to "answer questions with recommendations for complications, drugs, and other treatments," according to the app store description.

Cataracts and glaucoma are also more common among diabetics. It is also important to note that since the lens of the eye lets water through, if blood sugar concentrations vary a lot, the lens of the eye will shrink and swell with fluid accordingly. As a result, blurry vision is very common in poorly controlled diabetes. Patients are usually discouraged from getting a new eyeglass prescription until their blood sugar is controlled. This allows for a more accurate assessment of what kind of glasses prescription is required.
Type 2 diabetes has long been known to progress despite glucose-lowering treatment, with 50% of individuals requiring insulin therapy within 10 years (1). This seemingly inexorable deterioration in control has been interpreted to mean that the condition is treatable but not curable. Clinical guidelines recognize this deterioration with algorithms of sequential addition of therapies. Insulin resistance and β-cell dysfunction are known to be the major pathophysiologic factors driving type 2 diabetes; however, these factors come into play with very different time courses. Insulin resistance in muscle is the earliest detectable abnormality of type 2 diabetes (2). In contrast, changes in insulin secretion determine both the onset of hyperglycemia and the progression toward insulin therapy (3,4). The etiology of each of these two major factors appears to be distinct. Insulin resistance may be caused by an insulin signaling defect (5), glucose transporter defect (6), or lipotoxicity (7), and β-cell dysfunction is postulated to be caused by amyloid deposition in the islets (8), oxidative stress (9), excess fatty acid (10), or lack of incretin effect (11). The demonstration of reversibility of type 2 diabetes offers the opportunity to evaluate the time sequence of pathophysiologic events during return to normal glucose metabolism and, hence, to unraveling the etiology.
Sometimes the simplest technology is the most important. Jeniece Ilkowitz, CDE, a research nurse and diabetes educator at New York University Langone Health in New York City, recommends that all her patients have this app and set it to show a medical alert on the lock screen, information that can be critical to first responders in an emergency. The Medical ID app is part of the Health app that comes standard on iPhones (therefore, there's no rating on Apple), and it’s simple to set up. If you have an Android device, you’ll have to download it from Google Play.

DIAbetes Genetics Replication And Meta-analysis (DIAGRAM) Consortium; Asian Genetic Epidemiology Network Type 2 Diabetes (AGEN-T2D) Consortium; South Asian Type 2 Diabetes (SAT2D) Consortium; Mexican American Type 2 Diabetes (MAT2D) Consortium; Type 2 Diabetes Genetic Exploration by Nex-generation sequencing in muylti-Ethnic Samples (T2D-GENES) Consortium, Mahajan A, Go MJ, Zhang W, Below JE, Gaulton KJ, Ferreira T, Horikoshi M, Johnson AD, Ng MC, Prokopenko I, Saleheen D, Wang X, Zeggini E, Abecasis GR, Adair LS, Almgren P, Atalay M, Aung T, Baldassarre D, Balkau B, Bao Y, Barnett AH, Barroso I, Basit A, Been LF, Beilby J, Bell GI, Benediktsson R, Bergman RN, Boehm BO, Boerwinkle E, Bonnycastle LL, Burtt N, Cai Q, Campbell H, Carey J, Cauchi S, Caulfield M, Chan JC, Chang LC, Chang TJ, Chang YC, Charpentier G, Chen CH, Chen H, Chen YT, Chia KS, Chidambaram M, Chines PS, Cho NH, Cho YM, Chuang LM, Collins FS, Cornelis MC, Couper DJ, Crenshaw AT, van Dam RM, Danesh J, Das D, de Faire U, Dedoussis G, Deloukas P, Dimas AS, Dina C, Doney AS, Donnelly PJ, Dorkhan M, van Duijn C, Dupuis J, Edkins S, Elliott P, Emilsson V, Erbel R, Eriksson JG, Escobedo J, Esko T, Eury E, Florez JC, Fontanillas P, Forouhi NG, Forsen T, Fox C, Fraser RM, Frayling TM, Froguel P, Frossard P, Gao Y, Gertow K, Gieger C, Gigante B, Grallert H, Grant GB, Grrop LC, Groves CJ, Grundberg E, Guiducci C, Hamsten A, Han BG, Hara K, Hassanali N, Hattersley AT, Hayward C, Hedman AK, Herder C, Hofman A, Holmen OL, Hovingh K, Hreidarsson AB, Hu C, Hu FB, Hui J, Humphries SE, Hunt SE, Hunter DJ, Hveem K, Hydrie ZI, Ikegami H, Illig T, Ingelsson E, Islam M, Isomaa B, Jackson AU, Jafar T, James A, Jia W, Jöckel KH, Jonsson A, Jowett JB, Kadowaki T, Kang HM, Kanoni S, Kao WH, Kathiresan S, Kato N, Katulanda P, Keinanen-Kiukaanniemi KM, Kelly AM, Khan H, Khaw KT, Khor CC, Kim HL, Kim S, Kim YJ, Kinnunen L, Klopp N, Kong A, Korpi-Hyövälti E, Kowlessur S, Kraft P, Kravic J, Kristensen MM, Krithika S, Kumar A, Kumate J, Kuusisto J, Kwak SH, Laakso M, Lagou V, Lakka TA, Langenberg C, Langford C, Lawrence R, Leander K, Lee JM, Lee NR, Li M, Li X, Li Y, Liang J, Liju S, Lim WY, Lind L, Lindgren CM, Lindholm E, Liu CT, Liu JJ, Lobbens S, Long J, Loos RJ, Lu W, Luan J, Lyssenko V, Ma RC, Maeda S, Mägi R, Männisto S, Matthews DR, Meigs JB, Melander O, Metspalu A, Meyer J, Mirza G, Mihailov E, Moebus S, Mohan V, Mohlke KL, Morris AD, Mühleisen TW, Müller-Nurasyid M, Musk B, Nakamura J, Nakashima E, Navarro P, Ng PK, Nica AC, Nilsson PM, Njølstad I, Nöthen MM, Ohnaka K, Ong TH, Owen KR, Palmer CN, Pankow JS, Park KS, Parkin M, Pechlivanis S, Pedersen NL, Peltonen L, Perry JR, Peters A, Pinidiyapathirage JM, Platou CG, Potter S, Price JF, Qi L, Radha V, Rallidis L, Rasheed A, Rathman W, Rauramaa R, Raychaudhuri S, Rayner NW, Rees SD, Rehnberg E, Ripatti S, Robertson N, Roden M, Rossin EJ, Rudan I, Rybin D, Saaristo TE, Salomaa V, Saltevo J, Samuel M, Sanghera DK, Saramies J, Scott J, Scott LJ, Scott RA, Segrè AV, Sehmi J, Sennblad B, Shah N, Shah S, Shera AS, Shu XO, Shuldiner AR, Sigurđsson G, Sijbrands E, Silveira A, Sim X, Sivapalaratnam S, Small KS, So WY, Stančáková A, Stefansson K, Steinbach G, Steinthorsdottir V, Stirrups K, Strawbridge RJ, Stringham HM, Sun Q, Suo C, Syvänen AC, Takayanagi R, Takeuchi F, Tay WT, Teslovich TM, Thorand B, Thorleifsson G, Thorsteinsdottir U, Tikkanen E, Trakalo J, Tremoli E, Trip MD, Tsai FJ, Tuomi T, Tuomilehto J, Uitterlinden AG, Valladares-Salgado A, Vedantam S, Veglia F, Voight BF, Wang C, Wareham NJ, Wennauer R, Wickremasinghe AR, Wilsgaard T, Wilson JF, Wiltshire S, Winckler W, Wong TY, Wood AR, Wu JY, Wu Y, Yamamoto K, Yamauchi T, Yang M, Yengo L, Yokota M, Young R, Zabaneh D, Zhang F, Zhang R, Zheng W, Zimmet PZ, Altshuler D, Bowden DW, Cho YS, Cox NJ, Cruz M, Hanis CL, Kooner J, Lee JY, Seielstad M, Teo YY, Boehnke M, Parra EJ, Chambers JC, Tai ES, McCarthy MI, Morris AP. Genome-wide trans-ancestry meta-analysis provides insight into the genetic architecture of type 2 diabetes susceptibility. Nat Genet. 2014 Mar;46(3):234-44. doi: 10.1038/ng.2897. Epub 2014 Feb 9.

Cataracts and glaucoma are also more common among diabetics. It is also important to note that since the lens of the eye lets water through, if blood sugar concentrations vary a lot, the lens of the eye will shrink and swell with fluid accordingly. As a result, blurry vision is very common in poorly controlled diabetes. Patients are usually discouraged from getting a new eyeglass prescription until their blood sugar is controlled. This allows for a more accurate assessment of what kind of glasses prescription is required.


In animals, diabetes is most commonly encountered in dogs and cats. Middle-aged animals are most commonly affected. Female dogs are twice as likely to be affected as males, while according to some sources, male cats are also more prone than females. In both species, all breeds may be affected, but some small dog breeds are particularly likely to develop diabetes, such as Miniature Poodles.[123]
Type 2 diabetes used to be known as adult-onset diabetes, but today more children are being diagnosed with the disorder, probably due to the rise in childhood obesity. There's no cure for type 2 diabetes, but losing weight, eating well and exercising can help manage the disease. If diet and exercise aren't enough to manage your blood sugar well, you may also need diabetes medications or insulin therapy.
Asian. Diabetes is the fifth-leading cause of death for Asian or Pacific Islander women in the United States.10 However, it may be more or less common for women of different Asian heritage groups to be diagnosed with diabetes. One in every 33 Chinese-American women is diagnosed with diabetes compared to 1 in every 10 Asian Indian women.1 It is also more common for Asian women to develop gestational diabetes compared to white women.11
"It's never been easier to manage diabetes with all the technological stuff we have at our fingertips," said Steve Lisowski, who lives in Chicago. Lisowski has had type 2 diabetes for 15 years, and currently uses an insulin pump and a continuous glucose monitor to help manage his diabetes. He has used nutrition apps and an overall diabetes-management app.
Sleep talking, formally known as somniloquy, is a sleep disorder defined as talking during sleep without being aware of it. Sleep talking can involve complicated dialogues or monologues, complete gibberish or mumbling. The good news is that for most people it is a rare and short-lived occurrence. Anyone can experience sleep talking, but the condition is more common in males...
Yes. Once you get a new kidney, you may need a higher dose of insulin. Your appetite will improve so your new kidney will break down insulin better than your injured one. You will use steroids to keep your body from rejecting your new kidney. If your new kidney fails, dialysis treatment can be started while you wait for another kidney. To learn more about kidney transplant click here.
Glucosio is an app for people with type 1 and type 2 diabetes. It monitors important metrics such as weight, hemoglobin A1c, ketones, cholesterol, blood pressure, and more. The app also includes glucose target tools and an HbA1c conversion calculator. Set reminders to keep you in tune with taking medication, working out, and other important tasks. You can share data from the app anonymously if you choose.
Most cases of diabetes involve many genes, with each being a small contributor to an increased probability of becoming a type 2 diabetic.[10] If one identical twin has diabetes, the chance of the other developing diabetes within his lifetime is greater than 90%, while the rate for nonidentical siblings is 25–50%.[13] As of 2011, more than 36 genes had been found that contribute to the risk of type 2 diabetes.[38] All of these genes together still only account for 10% of the total heritable component of the disease.[38] The TCF7L2 allele, for example, increases the risk of developing diabetes by 1.5 times and is the greatest risk of the common genetic variants.[13] Most of the genes linked to diabetes are involved in beta cell functions.[13]
Women seem to be at a greater risk as do certain ethnic groups,[10][109] such as South Asians, Pacific Islanders, Latinos, and Native Americans.[23] This may be due to enhanced sensitivity to a Western lifestyle in certain ethnic groups.[110] Traditionally considered a disease of adults, type 2 diabetes is increasingly diagnosed in children in parallel with rising obesity rates.[10] Type 2 diabetes is now diagnosed as frequently as type 1 diabetes in teenagers in the United States.[13]

Although many of the symptoms of type 1 and type 2 diabetes are similar, they present in very different ways. Many people with type 2 diabetes won’t have symptoms for many years. Then often the symptoms of type 2 diabetes develop slowly over the course of time. Some people with type 2 diabetes have no symptoms at all and don’t discover their condition until complications develop.
There is no known preventive measure for type 1 diabetes.[2] Type 2 diabetes—which accounts for 85–90% of all cases worldwide—can often be prevented or delayed by maintaining a normal body weight, engaging in physical activity, and eating a healthy diet.[2] Higher levels of physical activity (more than 90 minutes per day) reduce the risk of diabetes by 28%.[71] Dietary changes known to be effective in helping to prevent diabetes include maintaining a diet rich in whole grains and fiber, and choosing good fats, such as the polyunsaturated fats found in nuts, vegetable oils, and fish.[72] Limiting sugary beverages and eating less red meat and other sources of saturated fat can also help prevent diabetes.[72] Tobacco smoking is also associated with an increased risk of diabetes and its complications, so smoking cessation can be an important preventive measure as well.[73]
^ Zheng SL, Roddick AJ, Aghar-Jaffar R, Shun-Shin MJ, Francis D, Oliver N, Meeran K (April 2018). "Association Between Use of Sodium-Glucose Cotransporter 2 Inhibitors, Glucagon-like Peptide 1 Agonists, and Dipeptidyl Peptidase 4 Inhibitors With All-Cause Mortality in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis". JAMA. 319 (15): 1580–1591. doi:10.1001/jama.2018.3024. PMC 5933330. PMID 29677303.
You are more likely to develop type 2 diabetes if you are age 45 or older, have a family history of diabetes, or are overweight. Physical inactivity, race, and certain health problems such as high blood pressure also affect your chance of developing type 2 diabetes. You are also more likely to develop type 2 diabetes if you have prediabetes or had gestational diabetes when you were pregnant. Learn more about risk factors for type 2 diabetes.
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