This app, named one of the top diabetes apps by Healthline from 2015 to 2017, offers two options: basic and pro. The basic app function is designed to help manage blood glucose patterns for individuals with Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes. There is a section to enter data regarding diet, medications, and blood glucose levels. The upgraded pro version provides features like blood glucose reminders, multi-device syncing, basal rates for pump usersm and priority support. MySugr coaching is one of the newest features by which users can receive personalized advice from certified diabetes educators.
Anna Syreeni, Niina Sandholm, Jingjing Cao, Iiro Toppila, David M. Maahs, Marian J. Rewers, Janet K. Snell-Bergeon, Tina Costacou, Trevor J. Orchard, M. Luiza Caramori, Michael Mauer, Barbara E.K. Klein, Ronald Klein, Erkka Valo, Maija Parkkonen, Carol Forsblom, Valma Harjutsalo, Andrew D. Paterson, for the DCCT/EDIC Research Group and Per-Henrik Groop, on behalf of the FinnDiane Study Group
One of the key factors in Joslin’s treatment of diabetes is tight blood glucose control, so be certain that your treatment helps get your blood glucose readings as close to normal as safely possible. Patients should discuss with their doctors what their target blood glucose range is. It is also important to determine what your goal is for A1C readings (a test that determines how well your diabetes is controlled over the past 2-3 months). By maintaining blood glucose in the desired range, you’ll likely avoid many of the complications some people with diabetes face.
For Candace Clark, bariatric surgery meant the difference between struggling with weight issues, including medical problems triggered by obesity, and enjoying renewed health and energy. "I felt like I was slowly dying," says Candace Clark, a 54-year-old Barron, Wisconsin, resident who had dealt with weight issues for years. "I was tired of feeling the way [...]
DIAbetes Genetics Replication And Meta-analysis (DIAGRAM) Consortium; Asian Genetic Epidemiology Network Type 2 Diabetes (AGEN-T2D) Consortium; South Asian Type 2 Diabetes (SAT2D) Consortium; Mexican American Type 2 Diabetes (MAT2D) Consortium; Type 2 Diabetes Genetic Exploration by Nex-generation sequencing in muylti-Ethnic Samples (T2D-GENES) Consortium, Mahajan A, Go MJ, Zhang W, Below JE, Gaulton KJ, Ferreira T, Horikoshi M, Johnson AD, Ng MC, Prokopenko I, Saleheen D, Wang X, Zeggini E, Abecasis GR, Adair LS, Almgren P, Atalay M, Aung T, Baldassarre D, Balkau B, Bao Y, Barnett AH, Barroso I, Basit A, Been LF, Beilby J, Bell GI, Benediktsson R, Bergman RN, Boehm BO, Boerwinkle E, Bonnycastle LL, Burtt N, Cai Q, Campbell H, Carey J, Cauchi S, Caulfield M, Chan JC, Chang LC, Chang TJ, Chang YC, Charpentier G, Chen CH, Chen H, Chen YT, Chia KS, Chidambaram M, Chines PS, Cho NH, Cho YM, Chuang LM, Collins FS, Cornelis MC, Couper DJ, Crenshaw AT, van Dam RM, Danesh J, Das D, de Faire U, Dedoussis G, Deloukas P, Dimas AS, Dina C, Doney AS, Donnelly PJ, Dorkhan M, van Duijn C, Dupuis J, Edkins S, Elliott P, Emilsson V, Erbel R, Eriksson JG, Escobedo J, Esko T, Eury E, Florez JC, Fontanillas P, Forouhi NG, Forsen T, Fox C, Fraser RM, Frayling TM, Froguel P, Frossard P, Gao Y, Gertow K, Gieger C, Gigante B, Grallert H, Grant GB, Grrop LC, Groves CJ, Grundberg E, Guiducci C, Hamsten A, Han BG, Hara K, Hassanali N, Hattersley AT, Hayward C, Hedman AK, Herder C, Hofman A, Holmen OL, Hovingh K, Hreidarsson AB, Hu C, Hu FB, Hui J, Humphries SE, Hunt SE, Hunter DJ, Hveem K, Hydrie ZI, Ikegami H, Illig T, Ingelsson E, Islam M, Isomaa B, Jackson AU, Jafar T, James A, Jia W, Jöckel KH, Jonsson A, Jowett JB, Kadowaki T, Kang HM, Kanoni S, Kao WH, Kathiresan S, Kato N, Katulanda P, Keinanen-Kiukaanniemi KM, Kelly AM, Khan H, Khaw KT, Khor CC, Kim HL, Kim S, Kim YJ, Kinnunen L, Klopp N, Kong A, Korpi-Hyövälti E, Kowlessur S, Kraft P, Kravic J, Kristensen MM, Krithika S, Kumar A, Kumate J, Kuusisto J, Kwak SH, Laakso M, Lagou V, Lakka TA, Langenberg C, Langford C, Lawrence R, Leander K, Lee JM, Lee NR, Li M, Li X, Li Y, Liang J, Liju S, Lim WY, Lind L, Lindgren CM, Lindholm E, Liu CT, Liu JJ, Lobbens S, Long J, Loos RJ, Lu W, Luan J, Lyssenko V, Ma RC, Maeda S, Mägi R, Männisto S, Matthews DR, Meigs JB, Melander O, Metspalu A, Meyer J, Mirza G, Mihailov E, Moebus S, Mohan V, Mohlke KL, Morris AD, Mühleisen TW, Müller-Nurasyid M, Musk B, Nakamura J, Nakashima E, Navarro P, Ng PK, Nica AC, Nilsson PM, Njølstad I, Nöthen MM, Ohnaka K, Ong TH, Owen KR, Palmer CN, Pankow JS, Park KS, Parkin M, Pechlivanis S, Pedersen NL, Peltonen L, Perry JR, Peters A, Pinidiyapathirage JM, Platou CG, Potter S, Price JF, Qi L, Radha V, Rallidis L, Rasheed A, Rathman W, Rauramaa R, Raychaudhuri S, Rayner NW, Rees SD, Rehnberg E, Ripatti S, Robertson N, Roden M, Rossin EJ, Rudan I, Rybin D, Saaristo TE, Salomaa V, Saltevo J, Samuel M, Sanghera DK, Saramies J, Scott J, Scott LJ, Scott RA, Segrè AV, Sehmi J, Sennblad B, Shah N, Shah S, Shera AS, Shu XO, Shuldiner AR, Sigurđsson G, Sijbrands E, Silveira A, Sim X, Sivapalaratnam S, Small KS, So WY, Stančáková A, Stefansson K, Steinbach G, Steinthorsdottir V, Stirrups K, Strawbridge RJ, Stringham HM, Sun Q, Suo C, Syvänen AC, Takayanagi R, Takeuchi F, Tay WT, Teslovich TM, Thorand B, Thorleifsson G, Thorsteinsdottir U, Tikkanen E, Trakalo J, Tremoli E, Trip MD, Tsai FJ, Tuomi T, Tuomilehto J, Uitterlinden AG, Valladares-Salgado A, Vedantam S, Veglia F, Voight BF, Wang C, Wareham NJ, Wennauer R, Wickremasinghe AR, Wilsgaard T, Wilson JF, Wiltshire S, Winckler W, Wong TY, Wood AR, Wu JY, Wu Y, Yamamoto K, Yamauchi T, Yang M, Yengo L, Yokota M, Young R, Zabaneh D, Zhang F, Zhang R, Zheng W, Zimmet PZ, Altshuler D, Bowden DW, Cho YS, Cox NJ, Cruz M, Hanis CL, Kooner J, Lee JY, Seielstad M, Teo YY, Boehnke M, Parra EJ, Chambers JC, Tai ES, McCarthy MI, Morris AP. Genome-wide trans-ancestry meta-analysis provides insight into the genetic architecture of type 2 diabetes susceptibility. Nat Genet. 2014 Mar;46(3):234-44. doi: 10.1038/ng.2897. Epub 2014 Feb 9.
Data from the Swedish randomized study of gastric banding showed that a loss of 20% body weight was associated with long-term remission in 73% of a bariatric surgery group, with weight change itself being the principal determinant of glucose control (13). Dietary weight loss of 15 kg allowed for reversal of diabetes in a small group of individuals recently receiving a diagnosis (21). In individuals strongly motivated to regain normal health, substantial weight loss is entirely possible by decreasing food consumption (88). This information should be made available to all people with type 2 diabetes, even though with present methods of changing eating habits, it is unlikely that weight loss can be achieved in those not strongly motivated to escape from diabetes. Some genetic predictors, especially the Ala12 allele at PPARG, of successful long-term weight loss have been identified (89), and use of such markers could guide future therapy. It must be noted that involuntary food shortage, such as a result of war, results in a sharp fall in type 2 diabetes prevalence (90,91).
There are some interesting developments in blood glucose monitoring including continuous glucose sensors. The new continuous glucose sensor systems involve an implantable cannula placed just under the skin in the abdomen or in the arm. This cannula allows for frequent sampling of blood glucose levels. Attached to this is a transmitter that sends the data to a pager-like device. This device has a visual screen that allows the wearer to see, not only the current glucose reading, but also the graphic trends. In some devices, the rate of change of blood sugar is also shown. There are alarms for low and high sugar levels. Certain models will alarm if the rate of change indicates the wearer is at risk for dropping or rising blood glucose too rapidly. One version is specifically designed to interface with their insulin pumps. In most cases the patient still must manually approve any insulin dose (the pump cannot blindly respond to the glucose information it receives, it can only give a calculated suggestion as to whether the wearer should give insulin, and if so, how much). However, in 2013 the US FDA approved the first artificial pancreas type device, meaning an implanted sensor and pump combination that stops insulin delivery when glucose levels reach a certain low point. All of these devices need to be correlated to fingersticks measurements for a few hours before they can function independently. The devices can then provide readings for 3 to 5 days.
Keep your diabetes under control by tracking your sugar levels and other factors that influence how you feel. Diabetes:M delivers one-click diabetes management by calculating normal and prolonged insulin boluses and offering an extensive nutrition database. You can set reminders to check your blood sugar or log exercise time. Best of all, it works with different glucometers and insulin pumps to analyze values from imported data.
A Great Diabetic Log Program. I have been using this program for several months now and cannot go without it. I can accurately keep my glucose and dietary levels. I can also keep track of my blood pressure readings, weight levels, A1C levels and much more. I can prepare and print many different reports for my doctors. If you are a diabetic, you should use this program.

People with diabetes can benefit from education about the disease and treatment, good nutrition to achieve a normal body weight, and exercise, with the goal of keeping both short-term and long-term blood glucose levels within acceptable bounds. In addition, given the associated higher risks of cardiovascular disease, lifestyle modifications are recommended to control blood pressure.[80][81]


The classic symptoms of untreated diabetes are unintended weight loss, polyuria (increased urination), polydipsia (increased thirst), and polyphagia (increased hunger).[20] Symptoms may develop rapidly (weeks or months) in type 1 DM, while they usually develop much more slowly and may be subtle or absent in type 2 DM. Other symptoms of diabetes mellitus include weight loss and tiredness.[21]
Managing diabetes involves knowing your numbers. Glooko monitors your medications, carb intake, and more. It integrates data from most continuous glucose monitors, blood glucose meters, insulin pumps, and fitness trackers. View your progress via charts and keep track of your history. If your doctor sponsors you, or your employer or insurer covers the fee, the app can be used completely free of charge.
Findings from the Diabetes Control and Complications Trial (DCCT) and the United Kingdom Prospective Diabetes Study (UKPDS) have clearly shown that aggressive and intensive control of elevated levels of blood sugar in patients with type 1 and type 2 diabetes decreases the complications of nephropathy, neuropathy, retinopathy, and may reduce the occurrence and severity of large blood vessel diseases. Aggressive control with intensive therapy means achieving fasting glucose levels between 70-120 mg/dl; glucose levels of less than 160 mg/dl after meals; and a near normal hemoglobin A1c levels (see below).
^ Jump up to: a b c Vos T, Flaxman AD, Naghavi M, Lozano R, Michaud C, Ezzati M, et al. (December 2012). "Years lived with disability (YLDs) for 1160 sequelae of 289 diseases and injuries 1990–2010: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2010". Lancet. 380 (9859): 2163–96. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(12)61729-2. PMC 6350784. PMID 23245607.
^ Palmer SC, Mavridis D, Nicolucci A, Johnson DW, Tonelli M, Craig JC, Maggo J, Gray V, De Berardis G, Ruospo M, Natale P, Saglimbene V, Badve SV, Cho Y, Nadeau-Fredette AC, Burke M, Faruque L, Lloyd A, Ahmad N, Liu Y, Tiv S, Wiebe N, Strippoli GF (July 2016). "Comparison of Clinical Outcomes and Adverse Events Associated With Glucose-Lowering Drugs in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes: A Meta-analysis". JAMA. 316 (3): 313–24. doi:10.1001/jama.2016.9400. PMID 27434443.
^ Santaguida PL, Balion C, Hunt D, Morrison K, Gerstein H, Raina P, Booker L, Yazdi H. "Diagnosis, Prognosis, and Treatment of Impaired Glucose Tolerance and Impaired Fasting Glucose". Summary of Evidence Report/Technology Assessment, No. 128. Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. Archived from the original on 16 September 2008. Retrieved 20 July 2008.
Diabetes is one of the first diseases described[21] with an Egyptian manuscript from c. 1500 BCE mentioning "too great emptying of the urine."[112] The first described cases are believed to be of type 1 diabetes.[112] Indian physicians around the same time identified the disease and classified it as madhumeha or honey urine noting that the urine would attract ants.[112] The term "diabetes" or "to pass through" was first used in 230 BCE by the Greek Apollonius Of Memphis.[112] The disease was rare during the time of the Roman empire with Galen commenting that he had only seen two cases during his career.[112]
Rosiglitazone, a thiazolidinedione, has not been found to improve long-term outcomes even though it improves blood sugar levels.[95] Additionally it is associated with increased rates of heart disease and death.[96] Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) prevent kidney disease and improve outcomes in those with diabetes.[97][98] The similar medications angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) do not.[98] A 2016 review recommended treating to a systolic blood pressure of 140 to 150 mmHg.[99]
Along with following your diabetes care plan, you may need diabetes medicines, which may include pills or medicines you inject under your skin, such as insulin. Over time, you may need more than one diabetes medicine to manage your blood glucose. Even if you don’t take insulin, you may need it at special times, such as during pregnancy or if you are in the hospital. You also may need medicines for high blood pressure, high cholesterol, or other conditions.

Diabetes Education Services offers education and training to diabetes educators in the areas of both Type 1 and Type 2 Diabetes for the novice to the established professional. Whether you are training to be a Certified Diabetes Educator® (CDE®), practicing at an advanced level and interested in board certification, or a health care professional and/or Certified Diabetes Educator (CDE®) who needs continuing education hours to renew your license or CDE®, we have diabetes education information, resources and training; learning and teaching tools; and diabetes online courses available for continuing education (CE). Read our disclaimer for full disclosure.
Weight loss surgery in those who are obese is an effective measure to treat diabetes.[103] Many are able to maintain normal blood sugar levels with little or no medication following surgery[104] and long-term mortality is decreased.[105] There however is some short-term mortality risk of less than 1% from the surgery.[106] The body mass index cutoffs for when surgery is appropriate are not yet clear.[105] It is recommended that this option be considered in those who are unable to get both their weight and blood sugar under control.[107][108]

Insulin is vital to patients with type 1 diabetes - they cannot live without a source of exogenous insulin. Without insulin, patients with type 1 diabetes develop severely elevated blood sugar levels. This leads to increased urine glucose, which in turn leads to excessive loss of fluid and electrolytes in the urine. Lack of insulin also causes the inability to store fat and protein along with breakdown of existing fat and protein stores. This dysregulation, results in the process of ketosis and the release of ketones into the blood. Ketones turn the blood acidic, a condition called diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA). Symptoms of diabetic ketoacidosis include nausea, vomiting, and abdominal pain. Without prompt medical treatment, patients with diabetic ketoacidosis can rapidly go into shock, coma, and even death may result.
A wide scatter of absolute levels of pancreas triacylglycerol has been reported, with a tendency for higher levels in people with diabetes (57). This large population study showed overlap between diabetic and weight-matched control groups. These findings were also observed in a more recent smaller study that used a more precise method (21). Why would one person have normal β-cell function with a pancreas fat level of, for example, 8%, whereas another has type 2 diabetes with a pancreas fat level of 5%? There must be varying degrees of liposusceptibility of the metabolic organs, and this has been demonstrated in relation to ethnic differences (72). If the fat is simply not available to the body, then the susceptibility of the pancreas will not be tested, whereas if the individual acquires excess fat stores, then β-cell failure may or may not develop depending on degree of liposusceptibility. In any group of people with type 2 diabetes, simple inspection reveals that diabetes develops in some with a body mass index (BMI) in the normal or overweight range, whereas others have a very high BMI. The pathophysiologic changes in insulin secretion and insulin sensitivity are not different in obese and normal weight people (73), and the upswing in population rates of type 2 diabetes relates to a right shift in the whole BMI distribution. Hence, the person with a BMI of 24 and type 2 diabetes would in a previous era have had a BMI of 21 and no diabetes. It is clear that individual susceptibility factors determine the onset of the condition, and both genetic and epigenetic factors may contribute. Given that diabetes cannot occur without loss of acute insulin response to food, it can be postulated that this failure of acute insulin secretion could relate to both accumulation of fat and susceptibility to the adverse effect of excess fat in the pancreas.
The World Health Organization recommends testing those groups at high risk[55] and in 2014 the USPSTF is considering a similar recommendation.[59] High-risk groups in the United States include: those over 45 years old; those with a first degree relative with diabetes; some ethnic groups, including Hispanics, African-Americans, and Native-Americans; a history of gestational diabetes; polycystic ovary syndrome; excess weight; and conditions associated with metabolic syndrome.[23] The American Diabetes Association recommends screening those who have a BMI over 25 (in people of Asian descent screening is recommended for a BMI over 23).[60]
Studies in type 1 patients have shown that in intensively treated patients, diabetic eye disease decreased by 76%, kidney disease decreased by 54%, and nerve disease decreased by 60%. More recently the EDIC trial has shown that type 1 diabetes is also associated with increased heart disease, similar to type 2 diabetes. However, the price for aggressive blood sugar control is a two to three fold increase in the incidence of abnormally low blood sugar levels (caused by the diabetes medications). For this reason, tight control of diabetes to achieve glucose levels between 70 to120 mg/dl is not recommended for children under 13 years of age, patients with severe recurrent hypoglycemia, patients unaware of their hypoglycemia, and patients with far advanced diabetes complications. To achieve optimal glucose control without an undue risk of abnormally lowering blood sugar levels, patients with type 1 diabetes must monitor their blood glucose at least four times a day and administer insulin at least three times per day. In patients with type 2 diabetes, aggressive blood sugar control has similar beneficial effects on the eyes, kidneys, nerves and blood vessels.
Tyler played college basketball at Utah State from 2007-2011, and had the opportunity to play in three NCAA tournaments. His coaches and trainers always had Gatorade or candy on hand in case his blood glucose dropped during a game. Tyler tested his blood glucose right before training, and during halftime breaks. He says working out and playing basketball has helped him to better control his T1D.
Normally, blood glucose levels are tightly controlled by insulin, a hormone produced by the pancreas. Insulin lowers the blood glucose level. When the blood glucose elevates (for example, after eating food), insulin is released from the pancreas to normalize the glucose level by promoting the uptake of glucose into body cells. In patients with diabetes, the absence of insufficient production of or lack of response to insulin causes hyperglycemia. Diabetes is a chronic medical condition, meaning that although it can be controlled, it lasts a lifetime.
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