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Type 2 (formerly called 'adult-onset' or 'non insulin-dependent') diabetes results when the body doesn’t produce enough insulin and/or is unable to use insulin properly (this is also referred to as ‘insulin resistance’). This form of diabetes usually occurs in people who are over 40 years of age, overweight, and have a family history of diabetes, although today it is increasingly found in younger people.
Most strokes happen when a blood clot blocks a blood vessel within or leading to the brain. Type 2 diabetes increases your risk of stroke by two to four times, according to the National Stroke Association. Fortunately, the same steps that will help you prevent heart disease — controlling your blood sugar and blood pressure levels, maintaining a healthy weight, exercising regularly, and not smoking — are also the best ways to help reduce your risk of stroke.
Designed for smartphones and tablets this application is intended to help diabetics to manage better their diabetes and keep it under control. Users can log their values in the logbook and keep the records with them all the time. The application tracks almost all aspects of the diabetes treatment and provides detailed reports, charts, and statistics to share via email with the supervising specialists. It provides various tools to the diabetics, so they can find the trends in blood glucose levels and allows them to calculate normal and prolonged insulin boluses using its highly effective, top-notch bolus calculator.
Rosiglitazone, a thiazolidinedione, has not been found to improve long-term outcomes even though it improves blood sugar levels.[95] Additionally it is associated with increased rates of heart disease and death.[96] Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) prevent kidney disease and improve outcomes in those with diabetes.[97][98] The similar medications angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) do not.[98] A 2016 review recommended treating to a systolic blood pressure of 140 to 150 mmHg.[99]
Low blood sugar (hypoglycemia) is common in people with type 1 and type 2 DM. Most cases are mild and are not considered medical emergencies. Effects can range from feelings of unease, sweating, trembling, and increased appetite in mild cases to more serious effects such as confusion, changes in behavior such as aggressiveness, seizures, unconsciousness, and (rarely) permanent brain damage or death in severe cases.[23][24] Moderately low blood sugar may easily be mistaken for drunkenness;[25] rapid breathing and sweating, cold, pale skin are characteristic of low blood sugar but not definitive.[26] Mild to moderate cases are self-treated by eating or drinking something high in sugar. Severe cases can lead to unconsciousness and must be treated with intravenous glucose or injections with glucagon.[27]
The pain of diabetic nerve damage may respond to traditional treatments with certain medications such as gabapentin (Neurontin), phenytoin (Dilantin), and carbamazepine (Tegretol) that are traditionally used in the treatment of seizure disorders. Amitriptyline (Elavil, Endep) and desipramine (Norpraminine) are medications that are traditionally used for depression. While many of these medications are not indicated specifically for the treatment of diabetes related nerve pain, they are used by physicians commonly.
For people with Type 1 diabetes, blood glucose monitoring and insulin administration is the standard of care. Patients need to check their blood sugar a number of times a day, then give themselves insulin to replace what would have been made in the pancreas. Treatment for Type 2 diabetes, however, doesn’t involve these critical calculations of insulin. It’s usually maintained with a pretty regular administration of the same drugs on a set schedule.

You are more likely to develop type 2 diabetes if you are age 45 or older, have a family history of diabetes, or are overweight. Physical inactivity, race, and certain health problems such as high blood pressure also affect your chance of developing type 2 diabetes. You are also more likely to develop type 2 diabetes if you have prediabetes or had gestational diabetes when you were pregnant. Learn more about risk factors for type 2 diabetes.
Most strokes happen when a blood clot blocks a blood vessel within or leading to the brain. Type 2 diabetes increases your risk of stroke by two to four times, according to the National Stroke Association. Fortunately, the same steps that will help you prevent heart disease — controlling your blood sugar and blood pressure levels, maintaining a healthy weight, exercising regularly, and not smoking — are also the best ways to help reduce your risk of stroke.
In countries using a general practitioner system, such as the United Kingdom, care may take place mainly outside hospitals, with hospital-based specialist care used only in case of complications, difficult blood sugar control, or research projects. In other circumstances, general practitioners and specialists share care in a team approach. Home telehealth support can be an effective management technique.[100]

Intensive blood sugar lowering (HbA1c<6%) as opposed to standard blood sugar lowering (HbA1c of 7–7.9%) does not appear to change mortality.[76][77] The goal of treatment is typically an HbA1c of 7 to 8% or a fasting glucose of less than 7.2 mmol/L (130 mg/dl); however these goals may be changed after professional clinical consultation, taking into account particular risks of hypoglycemia and life expectancy.[60][78][79] Despite guidelines recommending that intensive blood sugar control be based on balancing immediate harms with long-term benefits, many people – for example people with a life expectancy of less than nine years who will not benefit, are over-treated.[80]
The term "type 1 diabetes" has replaced several former terms, including childhood-onset diabetes, juvenile diabetes, and insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM). Likewise, the term "type 2 diabetes" has replaced several former terms, including adult-onset diabetes, obesity-related diabetes, and noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM). Beyond these two types, there is no agreed-upon standard nomenclature.[citation needed]
The word mellitus (/məˈlaɪtəs/ or /ˈmɛlɪtəs/) comes from the classical Latin word mellītus, meaning "mellite"[114] (i.e. sweetened with honey;[114] honey-sweet[115]). The Latin word comes from mell-, which comes from mel, meaning "honey";[114][115] sweetness;[115] pleasant thing,[115] and the suffix -ītus,[114] whose meaning is the same as that of the English suffix "-ite".[116] It was Thomas Willis who in 1675 added "mellitus" to the word "diabetes" as a designation for the disease, when he noticed the urine of a diabetic had a sweet taste (glycosuria). This sweet taste had been noticed in urine by the ancient Greeks, Chinese, Egyptians, Indians, and Persians.
Along with following your diabetes care plan, you may need diabetes medicines, which may include pills or medicines you inject under your skin, such as insulin. Over time, you may need more than one diabetes medicine to manage your blood glucose. Even if you don’t take insulin, you may need it at special times, such as during pregnancy or if you are in the hospital. You also may need medicines for high blood pressure, high cholesterol, or other conditions.
Normally, blood glucose levels are tightly controlled by insulin, a hormone produced by the pancreas. Insulin lowers the blood glucose level. When the blood glucose elevates (for example, after eating food), insulin is released from the pancreas to normalize the glucose level by promoting the uptake of glucose into body cells. In patients with diabetes, the absence of insufficient production of or lack of response to insulin causes hyperglycemia. Diabetes is a chronic medical condition, meaning that although it can be controlled, it lasts a lifetime.
If the rapid changes in metabolism following bariatric surgery are a consequence of the sudden change in calorie balance, the defects in both insulin secretion and hepatic insulin sensitivity of type 2 diabetes should be correctable by change in diet alone. To test this hypothesis, a group of people with type 2 diabetes were studied before and during a 600 kcal/day diet (21). Within 7 days, liver fat decreased by 30%, becoming similar to that of the control group, and hepatic insulin sensitivity normalized (Fig. 2). The close association between liver fat content and hepatic glucose production had previously been established (20,22,23). Plasma glucose normalized by day 7 of the diet.

With this technology she is also able to monitor her daughter’s blood sugar levels remotely. Hoover says, “She also has a Dexcom Continuous Glucose Monitor with Share. This monitors her blood sugars through a site that we change weekly (sometimes longer), this updates every 5 minutes and is usually within 20 ml of her actual blood sugar. The CGM communicates her blood sugar numbers to a cell phone through the Share app!”
But for most people with Type 2 diabetes not on insulin, testing is inappropriate most of the time. That message is not getting through. At the end of last year, another study was published in JAMA Internal Medicine that quantified the prevalence of glucose testing in adults. Researchers examined a database that contained data on more than 370,000 commercial health insurance and Medicare Advantage beneficiaries who had Type 2 diabetes.
That’s because when your blood sugar isn’t under control, the excess glucose in your body can increase your chance of developing serious related health conditions. Heart disease, kidney disease, vision issues, and nerve damage are among the problems that can result from poorly managed diabetes, says William Sullivan, MD, a senior physician at the Joslin Diabetes Center and an assistant professor of medicine at Harvard Medical School in Boston.
You know that your family medical history, along with what you eat and how much you weigh, can affect your risk of developing type 2 diabetes. But did you know that your sleep habits can also play a role? It’s true. In fact, sleep deprivation is an often overlooked but significant risk factor for type 2 diabetes, a disease that involves too much glucose (or sugar) in the blood and increases the risk of heart disease.
Type 2 (formerly called 'adult-onset' or 'non insulin-dependent') diabetes results when the body doesn’t produce enough insulin and/or is unable to use insulin properly (this is also referred to as ‘insulin resistance’). This form of diabetes usually occurs in people who are over 40 years of age, overweight, and have a family history of diabetes, although today it is increasingly found in younger people.
"The mySugr Junior App was developed to make managing diabetes easier for kids. It also enables parents to keep control over the therapy, even when they're not around and their child is at school or out with friends. The app resembles a game in which the children get points for every entry. The goal is to score a particular amount of points every day. This encourages kids to take care of their diabetes regularly.
In the United States, 84.1 million adults—more than 1 in 3—have prediabetes. What’s more, 90% of them don’t know they have it. With prediabetes, blood sugar levels are higher than normal, but not high enough yet to be diagnosed as type 2 diabetes. Prediabetes raises your risk for type 2 diabetes, heart disease, and stroke. The good news is if you have prediabetes, a CDC-recognized lifestyle change program can help you take healthy steps to reverse it.
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