The pain of diabetic nerve damage may respond to traditional treatments with certain medications such as gabapentin (Neurontin), phenytoin (Dilantin), and carbamazepine (Tegretol) that are traditionally used in the treatment of seizure disorders. Amitriptyline (Elavil, Endep) and desipramine (Norpraminine) are medications that are traditionally used for depression. While many of these medications are not indicated specifically for the treatment of diabetes related nerve pain, they are used by physicians commonly.

DIAbetes Genetics Replication And Meta-analysis (DIAGRAM) Consortium; Asian Genetic Epidemiology Network Type 2 Diabetes (AGEN-T2D) Consortium; South Asian Type 2 Diabetes (SAT2D) Consortium; Mexican American Type 2 Diabetes (MAT2D) Consortium; Type 2 Diabetes Genetic Exploration by Nex-generation sequencing in muylti-Ethnic Samples (T2D-GENES) Consortium, Mahajan A, Go MJ, Zhang W, Below JE, Gaulton KJ, Ferreira T, Horikoshi M, Johnson AD, Ng MC, Prokopenko I, Saleheen D, Wang X, Zeggini E, Abecasis GR, Adair LS, Almgren P, Atalay M, Aung T, Baldassarre D, Balkau B, Bao Y, Barnett AH, Barroso I, Basit A, Been LF, Beilby J, Bell GI, Benediktsson R, Bergman RN, Boehm BO, Boerwinkle E, Bonnycastle LL, Burtt N, Cai Q, Campbell H, Carey J, Cauchi S, Caulfield M, Chan JC, Chang LC, Chang TJ, Chang YC, Charpentier G, Chen CH, Chen H, Chen YT, Chia KS, Chidambaram M, Chines PS, Cho NH, Cho YM, Chuang LM, Collins FS, Cornelis MC, Couper DJ, Crenshaw AT, van Dam RM, Danesh J, Das D, de Faire U, Dedoussis G, Deloukas P, Dimas AS, Dina C, Doney AS, Donnelly PJ, Dorkhan M, van Duijn C, Dupuis J, Edkins S, Elliott P, Emilsson V, Erbel R, Eriksson JG, Escobedo J, Esko T, Eury E, Florez JC, Fontanillas P, Forouhi NG, Forsen T, Fox C, Fraser RM, Frayling TM, Froguel P, Frossard P, Gao Y, Gertow K, Gieger C, Gigante B, Grallert H, Grant GB, Grrop LC, Groves CJ, Grundberg E, Guiducci C, Hamsten A, Han BG, Hara K, Hassanali N, Hattersley AT, Hayward C, Hedman AK, Herder C, Hofman A, Holmen OL, Hovingh K, Hreidarsson AB, Hu C, Hu FB, Hui J, Humphries SE, Hunt SE, Hunter DJ, Hveem K, Hydrie ZI, Ikegami H, Illig T, Ingelsson E, Islam M, Isomaa B, Jackson AU, Jafar T, James A, Jia W, Jöckel KH, Jonsson A, Jowett JB, Kadowaki T, Kang HM, Kanoni S, Kao WH, Kathiresan S, Kato N, Katulanda P, Keinanen-Kiukaanniemi KM, Kelly AM, Khan H, Khaw KT, Khor CC, Kim HL, Kim S, Kim YJ, Kinnunen L, Klopp N, Kong A, Korpi-Hyövälti E, Kowlessur S, Kraft P, Kravic J, Kristensen MM, Krithika S, Kumar A, Kumate J, Kuusisto J, Kwak SH, Laakso M, Lagou V, Lakka TA, Langenberg C, Langford C, Lawrence R, Leander K, Lee JM, Lee NR, Li M, Li X, Li Y, Liang J, Liju S, Lim WY, Lind L, Lindgren CM, Lindholm E, Liu CT, Liu JJ, Lobbens S, Long J, Loos RJ, Lu W, Luan J, Lyssenko V, Ma RC, Maeda S, Mägi R, Männisto S, Matthews DR, Meigs JB, Melander O, Metspalu A, Meyer J, Mirza G, Mihailov E, Moebus S, Mohan V, Mohlke KL, Morris AD, Mühleisen TW, Müller-Nurasyid M, Musk B, Nakamura J, Nakashima E, Navarro P, Ng PK, Nica AC, Nilsson PM, Njølstad I, Nöthen MM, Ohnaka K, Ong TH, Owen KR, Palmer CN, Pankow JS, Park KS, Parkin M, Pechlivanis S, Pedersen NL, Peltonen L, Perry JR, Peters A, Pinidiyapathirage JM, Platou CG, Potter S, Price JF, Qi L, Radha V, Rallidis L, Rasheed A, Rathman W, Rauramaa R, Raychaudhuri S, Rayner NW, Rees SD, Rehnberg E, Ripatti S, Robertson N, Roden M, Rossin EJ, Rudan I, Rybin D, Saaristo TE, Salomaa V, Saltevo J, Samuel M, Sanghera DK, Saramies J, Scott J, Scott LJ, Scott RA, Segrè AV, Sehmi J, Sennblad B, Shah N, Shah S, Shera AS, Shu XO, Shuldiner AR, Sigurđsson G, Sijbrands E, Silveira A, Sim X, Sivapalaratnam S, Small KS, So WY, Stančáková A, Stefansson K, Steinbach G, Steinthorsdottir V, Stirrups K, Strawbridge RJ, Stringham HM, Sun Q, Suo C, Syvänen AC, Takayanagi R, Takeuchi F, Tay WT, Teslovich TM, Thorand B, Thorleifsson G, Thorsteinsdottir U, Tikkanen E, Trakalo J, Tremoli E, Trip MD, Tsai FJ, Tuomi T, Tuomilehto J, Uitterlinden AG, Valladares-Salgado A, Vedantam S, Veglia F, Voight BF, Wang C, Wareham NJ, Wennauer R, Wickremasinghe AR, Wilsgaard T, Wilson JF, Wiltshire S, Winckler W, Wong TY, Wood AR, Wu JY, Wu Y, Yamamoto K, Yamauchi T, Yang M, Yengo L, Yokota M, Young R, Zabaneh D, Zhang F, Zhang R, Zheng W, Zimmet PZ, Altshuler D, Bowden DW, Cho YS, Cox NJ, Cruz M, Hanis CL, Kooner J, Lee JY, Seielstad M, Teo YY, Boehnke M, Parra EJ, Chambers JC, Tai ES, McCarthy MI, Morris AP. Genome-wide trans-ancestry meta-analysis provides insight into the genetic architecture of type 2 diabetes susceptibility. Nat Genet. 2014 Mar;46(3):234-44. doi: 10.1038/ng.2897. Epub 2014 Feb 9.

The Diabetes Control and Complications Trial (DCCT) was a clinical study conducted by the United States National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK) that was published in the New England Journal of Medicine in 1993. Test subjects all had diabetes mellitus type 1 and were randomized to a tight glycemic arm and a control arm with the standard of care at the time; people were followed for an average of seven years, and people in the treatment had dramatically lower rates of diabetic complications. It was as a landmark study at the time, and significantly changed the management of all forms of diabetes.[86][130][131]


Formal recommendations on how to reverse type 2 diabetes in clinical practice must await further studies. In the meantime, it will be helpful for all individuals with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes to know that they have a metabolic syndrome that is reversible. They should know that if it is not reversed, the consequences for future health and cost of life insurance are dire, although these serious adverse effects must be balanced against the difficulties and privations associated with a substantial and sustained change in eating patterns. For many people, this may prove to be too high a price to pay, but for those who are strongly motivated to escape from type 2 diabetes, the new understanding gives clear direction. Physicians need to accept that long-term weight loss is achievable for a worthwhile proportion of patients (96). In the United States, diabetes costs $174 billion annually (97), and in the United Kingdom, it accounts for 10% of National Health Service expenditure. Even if only a small proportion of patients with type 2 diabetes return to normal glucose control, the savings in disease burden and economic cost will be enormous.

Gestational diabetes. Gestational diabetes is a type of diabetes that happens only during pregnancy. Gestational diabetes can cause health problems for the baby and the mother if not controlled. Although gestational diabetes goes away after your baby is born, having diabetes during pregnancy raises your risk for type 2 diabetes later on.2 Learn more about gestational diabetes at the National Diabetes Information Clearinghouse.
Our bodies break down the foods we eat into glucose and other nutrients we need, which are then absorbed into the bloodstream from the gastrointestinal tract. The glucose level in the blood rises after a meal and triggers the pancreas to make the hormone insulin and release it into the bloodstream. But in people with diabetes, the body either can't make or can't respond to insulin properly.
Morris AP, Voight BF, Teslovich TM, Ferreira T, Segrè AV, Steinthorsdottir V, Strawbridge RJ, Khan H, Grallert H, Mahajan A, Prokopenko I, Kang HM, Dina C, Esko T, Fraser RM, Kanoni S, Kumar A, Lagou V, Langenberg C, Luan J, Lindgren CM, Müller-Nurasyid M, Pechlivanis S, Rayner NW, Scott LJ, Wiltshire S, Yengo L, Kinnunen L, Rossin EJ, Raychaudhuri S, Johnson AD, Dimas AS, Loos RJ, Vedantam S, Chen H, Florez JC, Fox C, Liu CT, Rybin D, Couper DJ, Kao WH, Li M, Cornelis MC, Kraft P, Sun Q, van Dam RM, Stringham HM, Chines PS, Fischer K, Fontanillas P, Holmen OL, Hunt SE, Jackson AU, Kong A, Lawrence R, Meyer J, Perry JR, Platou CG, Potter S, Rehnberg E, Robertson N, Sivapalaratnam S, Stančáková A, Stirrups K, Thorleifsson G, Tikkanen E, Wood AR, Almgren P, Atalay M, Benediktsson R, Bonnycastle LL, Burtt N, Carey J, Charpentier G, Crenshaw AT, Doney AS, Dorkhan M, Edkins S, Emilsson V, Eury E, Forsen T, Gertow K, Gigante B, Grant GB, Groves CJ, Guiducci C, Herder C, Hreidarsson AB, Hui J, James A, Jonsson A, Rathmann W, Klopp N, Kravic J, Krjutškov K, Langford C, Leander K, Lindholm E, Lobbens S, Männistö S, Mirza G, Mühleisen TW, Musk B, Parkin M, Rallidis L, Saramies J, Sennblad B, Shah S, Sigurðsson G, Silveira A, Steinbach G, Thorand B, Trakalo J, Veglia F, Wennauer R, Winckler W, Zabaneh D, Campbell H, van Duijn C, Uitterlinden AG, Hofman A, Sijbrands E, Abecasis GR, Owen KR, Zeggini E, Trip MD, Forouhi NG, Syvänen AC, Eriksson JG, Peltonen L, Nöthen MM, Balkau B, Palmer CN, Lyssenko V, Tuomi T, Isomaa B, Hunter DJ, Qi L; Wellcome Trust Case Control Consortium; Meta-Analyses of Glucose and Insulin-related traits Consortium (MAGIC) Investigators; Genetic Investigation of ANthropometric Traits (GIANT) Consortium; Asian Genetic Epidemiology Network–Type 2 Diabetes (AGEN-T2D) Consortium; South Asian Type 2 Diabetes (SAT2D) Consortium, Shuldiner AR, Roden M, Barroso I, Wilsgaard T, Beilby J, Hovingh K, Price JF, Wilson JF, Rauramaa R, Lakka TA, Lind L, Dedoussis G, Njølstad I, Pedersen NL, Khaw KT, Wareham NJ, Keinanen-Kiukaanniemi SM, Saaristo TE, Korpi-Hyövälti E, Saltevo J, Laakso M, Kuusisto J, Metspalu A, Collins FS, Mohlke KL, Bergman RN, Tuomilehto J, Boehm BO, Gieger C, Hveem K, Cauchi S, Froguel P, Baldassarre D, Tremoli E, Humphries SE, Saleheen D, Danesh J, Ingelsson E, Ripatti S, Salomaa V, Erbel R, Jöckel KH, Moebus S, Peters A, Illig T, de Faire U, Hamsten A, Morris AD, Donnelly PJ, Frayling TM, Hattersley AT, Boerwinkle E, Melander O, Kathiresan S, Nilsson PM, Deloukas P, Thorsteinsdottir U, Groop LC, Stefansson K, Hu F, Pankow JS, Dupuis J, Meigs JB, Altshuler D, Boehnke M, McCarthy MI; DIAbetes Genetics Replication And Meta-analysis (DIAGRAM) Consortium. Large-scale association analysis provides insights into the genetic architecture and pathophysiology of type 2 diabetes. Nat Genet. 2012 Sep;44(9):981-90. doi: 10.1038/ng.2383. Epub 2012 Aug 12.
In this simple app, you can record your blood sugar, meals, insulin, and medications. If there’s a feature in the app you don’t need, you can switch it off to keep the interface as clean as possible. The app syncs across multiple devices and creates clear graphs and reports so you can see the big picture of your data. If simplicity is your goal, this may be the right app for you.
Dr. Shiel received a Bachelor of Science degree with honors from the University of Notre Dame. There he was involved in research in radiation biology and received the Huisking Scholarship. After graduating from St. Louis University School of Medicine, he completed his Internal Medicine residency and Rheumatology fellowship at the University of California, Irvine. He is board-certified in Internal Medicine and Rheumatology.
"The mySugr Junior App was developed to make managing diabetes easier for kids. It also enables parents to keep control over the therapy, even when they're not around and their child is at school or out with friends. The app resembles a game in which the children get points for every entry. The goal is to score a particular amount of points every day. This encourages kids to take care of their diabetes regularly.
Hemoglobin A1c or HbA1c is a protein on the surface of red blood cells. The HbA1c test is used to monitor blood sugar levels in people with type 1 and type 2 diabetes over time. Normal HbA1c levels are 6% or less. HbA1c levels can be affected by insulin use, fasting, glucose intake (oral or IV), or a combination of these and other factors. High hemoglobin A1c levels in the blood increases the risk of microvascular complications, for example, diabetic neuropathy, eye, and kidney disease.
Anything that makes life with type 1 diabetes or type 2 diabetes easier is a win, and research shows that using a diabetes app can improve your health. For example, a review published online in March 2018 in the journal Diabetes, Obesity and Metabolism combined the results of 16 trials of type 2 diabetes apps and found that, on average, using a diabetes app led to a drop in hemoglobin A1C of 0.57 percent.

Maturity onset diabetes of the young (MODY) is a rare autosomal dominant inherited form of diabetes, due to one of several single-gene mutations causing defects in insulin production.[51] It is significantly less common than the three main types. The name of this disease refers to early hypotheses as to its nature. Being due to a defective gene, this disease varies in age at presentation and in severity according to the specific gene defect; thus there are at least 13 subtypes of MODY. People with MODY often can control it without using insulin.

This app focuses on tracking carbs, as well protein, fat, and calories, with a database of foods and a bar-code scanner. You can also log your meals with photos and voice memos. It lets you set and track a weight loss goal, as well as log exercise, though syncing with fitness trackers requires an upgrade to the subscription service. Note that this app includes features for those following a low-carbohydrate diet or the ketogenic diet, and Ilkowitz notes that these types of diets aren’t appropriate for everyone, so be cautious about taking dietary advice from an app and check with your doctor, dietitian, or certified diabetes educator before making changes to your diet.
Blood travels throughout your body, and when too much glucose (sugar) is present, it disrupts the normal environment that the organ systems of your body function within. In turn, your body starts to exhibit signs that things are not working properly inside—those are the symptoms of diabetes people sometimes experience. If this problem—caused by a variety of factors—is left untreated, it can lead to a number of damaging complications such as heart attacks, strokes, blindness, kidney failure, and blood vessel disease that may require an amputation, nerve damage, and impotence in men.
"Brittle" diabetes, also known as unstable diabetes or labile diabetes, is a term that was traditionally used to describe the dramatic and recurrent swings in glucose levels, often occurring for no apparent reason in insulin-dependent diabetes. This term, however, has no biologic basis and should not be used.[38] Still, type 1 diabetes can be accompanied by irregular and unpredictable high blood sugar levels, frequently with ketosis, and sometimes with serious low blood sugar levels. Other complications include an impaired counterregulatory response to low blood sugar, infection, gastroparesis (which leads to erratic absorption of dietary carbohydrates), and endocrinopathies (e.g., Addison's disease).[38] These phenomena are believed to occur no more frequently than in 1% to 2% of persons with type 1 diabetes.[39]

Type 2 DM is primarily due to lifestyle factors and genetics.[44] A number of lifestyle factors are known to be important to the development of type 2 DM, including obesity (defined by a body mass index of greater than 30), lack of physical activity, poor diet, stress, and urbanization.[16] Excess body fat is associated with 30% of cases in those of Chinese and Japanese descent, 60–80% of cases in those of European and African descent, and 100% of Pima Indians and Pacific Islanders.[10] Even those who are not obese often have a high waist–hip ratio.[10]
If early symptoms of diabetes are missed and treatment isn't started, chemicals called ketones can build up in the blood and cause stomach pain, nausea, vomiting, fruity-smelling breath, breathing problems, and even loss of consciousness. Sometimes these symptoms are mistaken for the flu or appendicitis. Doctors call this serious condition diabetic ketoacidosis, or DKA.
People with glucose levels between normal and diabetic have impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) or insulin resistance. People with impaired glucose tolerance do not have diabetes, but are at high risk for progressing to diabetes. Each year, 1% to 5% of people whose test results show impaired glucose tolerance actually eventually develop diabetes. Weight loss and exercise may help people with impaired glucose tolerance return their glucose levels to normal. In addition, some physicians advocate the use of medications, such as metformin (Glucophage), to help prevent/delay the onset of overt diabetes.
Lifestyle change has been proven effective in preventing or delaying the onset of type 2 diabetes in high-risk individuals. Based on this, new public health approaches are emerging that may deserve monitoring at the national level. For example, the Diabetes Prevention Program research trial demonstrated that lifestyle intervention had its greatest impact in older adults and was effective in all racial and ethnic groups. Translational studies of this work have also shown that delivery of the lifestyle intervention in group settings at the community level are also effective at reducing type 2 diabetes risk. The National Diabetes Prevention Program has now been established to implement the lifestyle intervention nationwide.
^ Sarwar N, Gao P, Seshasai SR, Gobin R, Kaptoge S, Di Angelantonio E, Ingelsson E, Lawlor DA, Selvin E, Stampfer M, Stehouwer CD, Lewington S, Pennells L, Thompson A, Sattar N, White IR, Ray KK, Danesh J (June 2010). "Diabetes mellitus, fasting blood glucose concentration, and risk of vascular disease: a collaborative meta-analysis of 102 prospective studies". Lancet. 375 (9733): 2215–22. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(10)60484-9. PMC 2904878. PMID 20609967.
In type 2 diabetes, the pancreas still makes insulin but the body doesn't respond to it normally. Glucose is less able to enter the cells and do its job of supplying energy (a problem called insulin resistance). This raises the blood sugar level, so the pancreas works hard to make even more insulin. Eventually, this strain can make the pancreas unable to produce enough insulin to keep blood sugar levels normal.

Low blood sugar (hypoglycemia) is common in people with type 1 and type 2 DM. Most cases are mild and are not considered medical emergencies. Effects can range from feelings of unease, sweating, trembling, and increased appetite in mild cases to more serious effects such as confusion, changes in behavior such as aggressiveness, seizures, unconsciousness, and (rarely) permanent brain damage or death in severe cases.[23][24] Moderately low blood sugar may easily be mistaken for drunkenness;[25] rapid breathing and sweating, cold, pale skin are characteristic of low blood sugar but not definitive.[26] Mild to moderate cases are self-treated by eating or drinking something high in sugar. Severe cases can lead to unconsciousness and must be treated with intravenous glucose or injections with glucagon.[27]
The apps on Apple's list aren't all from the US, and they don't all target diabetes specifically. While many are tracking and management apps for blood glucose and insulin levels, others are more general purpose apps for eating specific diets, which people with diabetes could benefit from. The list includes mostly consumer-facing apps but one app for doctors, as well as one for kids and one for pregnant women with diabetes.
The treatment of low blood sugar consists of administering a quickly absorbed glucose source. These include glucose containing drinks, such as orange juice, soft drinks (not sugar-free), or glucose tablets in doses of 15-20 grams at a time (for example, the equivalent of half a glass of juice). Even cake frosting applied inside the cheeks can work in a pinch if patient cooperation is difficult. If the individual becomes unconscious, glucagon can be given by intramuscular injection.
Type 2 diabetes does not have a clear pattern of inheritance, although many affected individuals have at least one close family member, such as a parent or sibling, with the disease. The risk of developing type 2 diabetes increases with the number of affected family members. The increased risk is likely due in part to shared genetic factors, but it is also related to lifestyle influences (such as eating and exercise habits) that are shared by members of a family.
Diabetes Education Services offers education and training to diabetes educators in the areas of both Type 1 and Type 2 Diabetes for the novice to the established professional. Whether you are training to be a Certified Diabetes Educator® (CDE®), practicing at an advanced level and interested in board certification, or a health care professional and/or Certified Diabetes Educator (CDE®) who needs continuing education hours to renew your license or CDE®, we have diabetes education information, resources and training; learning and teaching tools; and diabetes online courses available for continuing education (CE). Read our disclaimer for full disclosure.
The GoMeals “Today’s Plate” feature helps monitor each day’s calorie intake, as well as the distribution of carbohydrates, fats and proteins. These three nutrient categories are also represented in a pie chart on the touch screen. A restaurant locator feature helps users locate restaurants based on their current location and the type of cuisine they prefer, as well.
Diabetes can also affect your skin, the largest organ of your body. Along with dehydration, your body’s lack of moisture due to high blood sugar can cause the skin on your feet to dry and crack. It’s important to completely dry your feet after bathing or swimming. You can use petroleum jelly or gentle creams, but avoid letting these areas become too moist.

The United Kingdom Prospective Diabetes Study (UKPDS) was a clinical study conducted by Z that was published in The Lancet in 1998. Around 3,800 people with type 2 diabetes were followed for an average of ten years, and were treated with tight glucose control or the standard of care, and again the treatment arm had far better outcomes. This confirmed the importance of tight glucose control, as well as blood pressure control, for people with this condition.[86][132][133]
I just wanted to let you know about an app that I use and love. The app is called “Diabetes:M”. It is free and has helped me manage my diabetes. I am a Type 1. It lets you log carbs, insulin, etc. and you can send all of the info from it by e-mail to your provider. It has graphs and charts that help out a lot as well. Hope this helps someone else as much as it has helped me. Thanks.
You are more likely to develop type 2 diabetes if you are not physically active and are overweight or obese. Extra weight sometimes causes insulin resistance and is common in people with type 2 diabetes. The location of body fat also makes a difference. Extra belly fat is linked to insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes, and heart and blood vessel disease. To see if your weight puts you at risk for type 2 diabetes, check out these Body Mass Index (BMI) charts.
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