What are symptoms of type 2 diabetes in children? Type 2 diabetes is becoming increasingly common in children, and this is linked to a rise in obesity. However, the condition can be difficult to detect in children because it develops gradually. Symptoms, treatment, and prevention of type 2 diabetes are similar in children and adults. Learn more here. Read now


Chronic exposure of β-cells to triacylglycerol or fatty acids either in vitro or in vivo decreases β-cell capacity to respond to an acute increase in glucose levels (57,58). This concept is far from new (59,60), but the observations of what happens during reversal of diabetes provide a new perspective. β-Cells avidly import fatty acids through the CD36 transporter (24,61) and respond to increased fatty acid supply by storing the excess as triacylglycerol (62). The cellular process of insulin secretion in response to an increase in glucose supply depends on ATP generation by glucose oxidation. However, in the context of an oversupply of fatty acids, such chronic nutrient surfeit prevents further increases in ATP production. Increased fatty acid availability inhibits both pyruvate cycling, which is normally increased during an acute increase in glucose availability, and pyruvate dehydrogenase activity, the major rate-limiting enzyme of glucose oxidation (63). Fatty acids have been shown to inhibit β-cell proliferation in vitro by induction of the cell cycle inhibitors p16 and p18, and this effect is magnified by increased glucose concentration (64). This antiproliferative effect is specifically prevented by small interfering RNA knockdown of the inhibitors. In the Zucker diabetic fatty rat, a genetic model of spontaneous type 2 diabetes, the onset of hyperglycemia is preceded by a rapid increase in pancreatic fat (58). It is particularly noteworthy that the onset of diabetes in this genetic model is completely preventable by restriction of food intake (65), illustrating the interaction between genetic susceptibility and environmental factors.
Fuchsberger C, Flannick J, Teslovich TM, Mahajan A, Agarwala V, Gaulton KJ, Ma C, Fontanillas P, Moutsianas L, McCarthy DJ, Rivas MA, Perry JRB, Sim X, Blackwell TW, Robertson NR, Rayner NW, Cingolani P, Locke AE, Tajes JF, Highland HM, Dupuis J, Chines PS, Lindgren CM, Hartl C, Jackson AU, Chen H, Huyghe JR, van de Bunt M, Pearson RD, Kumar A, Müller-Nurasyid M, Grarup N, Stringham HM, Gamazon ER, Lee J, Chen Y, Scott RA, Below JE, Chen P, Huang J, Go MJ, Stitzel ML, Pasko D, Parker SCJ, Varga TV, Green T, Beer NL, Day-Williams AG, Ferreira T, Fingerlin T, Horikoshi M, Hu C, Huh I, Ikram MK, Kim BJ, Kim Y, Kim YJ, Kwon MS, Lee J, Lee S, Lin KH, Maxwell TJ, Nagai Y, Wang X, Welch RP, Yoon J, Zhang W, Barzilai N, Voight BF, Han BG, Jenkinson CP, Kuulasmaa T, Kuusisto J, Manning A, Ng MCY, Palmer ND, Balkau B, Stančáková A, Abboud HE, Boeing H, Giedraitis V, Prabhakaran D, Gottesman O, Scott J, Carey J, Kwan P, Grant G, Smith JD, Neale BM, Purcell S, Butterworth AS, Howson JMM, Lee HM, Lu Y, Kwak SH, Zhao W, Danesh J, Lam VKL, Park KS, Saleheen D, So WY, Tam CHT, Afzal U, Aguilar D, Arya R, Aung T, Chan E, Navarro C, Cheng CY, Palli D, Correa A, Curran JE, Rybin D, Farook VS, Fowler SP, Freedman BI, Griswold M, Hale DE, Hicks PJ, Khor CC, Kumar S, Lehne B, Thuillier D, Lim WY, Liu J, van der Schouw YT, Loh M, Musani SK, Puppala S, Scott WR, Yengo L, Tan ST, Taylor HA Jr, Thameem F, Wilson G Sr, Wong TY, Njølstad PR, Levy JC, Mangino M, Bonnycastle LL, Schwarzmayr T, Fadista J, Surdulescu GL, Herder C, Groves CJ, Wieland T, Bork-Jensen J, Brandslund I, Christensen C, Koistinen HA, Doney ASF, Kinnunen L, Esko T, Farmer AJ, Hakaste L, Hodgkiss D, Kravic J, Lyssenko V, Hollensted M, Jørgensen ME, Jørgensen T, Ladenvall C, Justesen JM, Käräjämäki A, Kriebel J, Rathmann W, Lannfelt L, Lauritzen T, Narisu N, Linneberg A, Melander O, Milani L, Neville M, Orho-Melander M, Qi L, Qi Q, Roden M, Rolandsson O, Swift A, Rosengren AH, Stirrups K, Wood AR, Mihailov E, Blancher C, Carneiro MO, Maguire J, Poplin R, Shakir K, Fennell T, DePristo M, de Angelis MH, Deloukas P, Gjesing AP, Jun G, Nilsson P, Murphy J, Onofrio R, Thorand B, Hansen T, Meisinger C, Hu FB, Isomaa B, Karpe F, Liang L, Peters A, Huth C, O'Rahilly SP, Palmer CNA, Pedersen O, Rauramaa R, Tuomilehto J, Salomaa V, Watanabe RM, Syvänen AC, Bergman RN, Bharadwaj D, Bottinger EP, Cho YS, Chandak GR, Chan JCN, Chia KS, Daly MJ, Ebrahim SB, Langenberg C, Elliott P, Jablonski KA, Lehman DM, Jia W, Ma RCW, Pollin TI, Sandhu M, Tandon N, Froguel P, Barroso I, Teo YY, Zeggini E, Loos RJF, Small KS, Ried JS, DeFronzo RA, Grallert H, Glaser B, Metspalu A, Wareham NJ, Walker M, Banks E, Gieger C, Ingelsson E, Im HK, Illig T, Franks PW, Buck G, Trakalo J, Buck D, Prokopenko I, Mägi R, Lind L, Farjoun Y, Owen KR, Gloyn AL, Strauch K, Tuomi T, Kooner JS, Lee JY, Park T, Donnelly P, Morris AD, Hattersley AT, Bowden DW, Collins FS, Atzmon G, Chambers JC, Spector TD, Laakso M, Strom TM, Bell GI, Blangero J, Duggirala R, Tai ES, McVean G, Hanis CL, Wilson JG, Seielstad M, Frayling TM, Meigs JB, Cox NJ, Sladek R, Lander ES, Gabriel S, Burtt NP, Mohlke KL, Meitinger T, Groop L, Abecasis G, Florez JC, Scott LJ, Morris AP, Kang HM, Boehnke M, Altshuler D, McCarthy MI. The genetic architecture of type 2 diabetes. Nature. 2016 Aug 4;536(7614):41-47. doi: 10.1038/nature18642. Epub 2016 Jul 11.

^ Jump up to: a b Petzold A, Solimena M, Knoch KP (October 2015). "Mechanisms of Beta Cell Dysfunction Associated With Viral Infection". Current Diabetes Reports (Review). 15 (10): 73. doi:10.1007/s11892-015-0654-x. PMC 4539350. PMID 26280364. So far, none of the hypotheses accounting for virus-induced beta cell autoimmunity has been supported by stringent evidence in humans, and the involvement of several mechanisms rather than just one is also plausible.
Injections of insulin may either be added to oral medication or used alone.[24] Most people do not initially need insulin.[13] When it is used, a long-acting formulation is typically added at night, with oral medications being continued.[23][24] Doses are then increased to effect (blood sugar levels being well controlled).[24] When nightly insulin is insufficient, twice daily insulin may achieve better control.[23] The long acting insulins glargine and detemir are equally safe and effective,[100] and do not appear much better than neutral protamine Hagedorn (NPH) insulin, but as they are significantly more expensive, they are not cost effective as of 2010.[101] In those who are pregnant insulin is generally the treatment of choice.[23]

Glucose Buddy Diabetes Tracker also allows you to track insulin, carbohydrates, weight, and ketones.  It allows users to save and view a history of their blood sugar records which helps you identify trends in your health.  You can schedule reminders to measure your blood sugar. The app tracks what time of day you are checking your blood sugar.  You can also add a note to each record.  Glucose integrates with HealthKit by writing all inputted entries to the Health app.  Subscriptions are available for premium features such as other apps, graphs, and custom tagging tools.


Diabetic hyperglycemic hyperosmolar syndrome (HHS) occurs in type 2 diabetes. It involves very high blood glucose levels but no ketones. You might become dehydrated with this condition. You may even lose consciousness. HHS is most common in people whose diabetes is undiagnosed or who haven’t been able to control their diabetes. It can also be caused by a heart attack, stroke, or infection.
Type 2 DM begins with insulin resistance, a condition in which cells fail to respond to insulin properly.[2] As the disease progresses, a lack of insulin may also develop.[11] This form was previously referred to as "non insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus" (NIDDM) or "adult-onset diabetes".[2] The most common cause is a combination of excessive body weight and insufficient exercise.[2]

Once nerve damage sets in, your risk of infection increases because you may not be able to feel an injury, like a cut on your foot, to help it heal early on. In addition to examining your feet every day, check in with your doctor at the first sign of infection, such as redness or swelling. Protect your feet by keeping your skin moisturized with a coat of petroleum jelly or rich cream, but make sure to keep the areas between your toes dry because extra moisture there can increase the risk of infection, the ADA suggests.
The apps on Apple's list aren't all from the US, and they don't all target diabetes specifically. While many are tracking and management apps for blood glucose and insulin levels, others are more general purpose apps for eating specific diets, which people with diabetes could benefit from. The list includes mostly consumer-facing apps but one app for doctors, as well as one for kids and one for pregnant women with diabetes.

This information is not designed to replace a physician's independent judgment about the appropriateness or risks of a procedure for a given patient. Always consult your doctor about your medical conditions. Vertical Health & EndocrineWeb do not provide medical advice, diagnosis or treatment. Use of this website is conditional upon your acceptance of our user agreement.

"It's never been easier to manage diabetes with all the technological stuff we have at our fingertips," said Steve Lisowski, who lives in Chicago. Lisowski has had type 2 diabetes for 15 years, and currently uses an insulin pump and a continuous glucose monitor to help manage his diabetes. He has used nutrition apps and an overall diabetes-management app.

The relationship between type 2 diabetes and the main modifiable risk factors (excess weight, unhealthy diet, physical inactivity and tobacco use) is similar in all regions of the world. There is growing evidence that the underlying determinants of diabetes are a reflection of the major forces driving social, economic and cultural change: globalization, urbanization, population aging, and the general health policy environment.[74]
If you’re newly diagnosed, your certified diabetes educator can help you prioritize which areas to focus on and can recommend a simple app for just that purpose, says Hughes. Starting in summer 2018, diabetes educators will have access to a brand-new website that will include rigorous reviews of diabetes apps, so they’ll have another tool to help you identify useful apps.
Glucose Wiz keeps your blood sugar and medication logs with time.  Write notes, and see your numbers in chart view to show glucose tendency for before meals, 2 hours after meals and at bedtime.  Export the readings in PDF, CSV, or HTML f0rmat by email to anyone, and print the logs directly from this app. iCloud auto sync is available and you can track and monitor your family members’ readings.

The WHO estimates that diabetes mellitus resulted in 1.5 million deaths in 2012, making it the 8th leading cause of death.[12][101] However another 2.2 million deaths worldwide were attributable to high blood glucose and the increased risks of cardiovascular disease and other associated complications (e.g. kidney failure), which often lead to premature death and are often listed as the underlying cause on death certificates rather than diabetes.[101][104] For example, in 2017, the International Diabetes Federation (IDF) estimated that diabetes resulted in 4.0 million deaths worldwide,[8] using modeling to estimate the total number of deaths that could be directly or indirectly attributed to diabetes.[8]
On top of tracking your blood glucose and meals (with a nutrition database and bar-code scanner), the Diabetes:M app will calculate insulin boluses for you. Through the Apple Health app, Diabetes:M will sync with other devices, including glucose meters, Fitbit, Garmin, and many others. You’ll need to pay extra for the subscription to access the full food database, sync multiple devices, and get rid of the ads. (The current subscription cost is $4.99 per month or $49.99 per year.)

Heather Bartley, 46, a former mail carrier in Yale, Michigan, says she has been using MyFitnessPal for six years and finds it valuable for counting carbs. “It’s very user friendly and free,” she says. While the free version meets her needs, a subscription version unlocks more features. (The current subscription price is $9.99 per month or $49.99 per year.)

What medication is available for diabetes? Diabetes causes blood sugar levels to rise. The body may stop producing insulin, the hormone that regulates blood sugar, and this results in type 1 diabetes. In people with type 2 diabetes, insulin is not working effectively. Learn about the range of treatments for each type and recent medical developments here. Read now
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