With type 2 diabetes, your body doesn’t use insulin well and can’t keep blood sugar at normal levels. About 90% of people with diabetes have type 2. It develops over many years and is usually diagnosed in adults (but more and more in children, teens, and young adults). You may not notice any symptoms, so it’s important to get your blood sugar tested if you’re at risk. Type 2 diabetes can be prevented or delayed with healthy lifestyle changes, such as losing weight, eating healthy food, and being active.
Formal recommendations on how to reverse type 2 diabetes in clinical practice must await further studies. In the meantime, it will be helpful for all individuals with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes to know that they have a metabolic syndrome that is reversible. They should know that if it is not reversed, the consequences for future health and cost of life insurance are dire, although these serious adverse effects must be balanced against the difficulties and privations associated with a substantial and sustained change in eating patterns. For many people, this may prove to be too high a price to pay, but for those who are strongly motivated to escape from type 2 diabetes, the new understanding gives clear direction. Physicians need to accept that long-term weight loss is achievable for a worthwhile proportion of patients (96). In the United States, diabetes costs $174 billion annually (97), and in the United Kingdom, it accounts for 10% of National Health Service expenditure. Even if only a small proportion of patients with type 2 diabetes return to normal glucose control, the savings in disease burden and economic cost will be enormous.
A second oral agent of another class or insulin may be added if metformin is not sufficient after three months. Other classes of medications include: sulfonylureas, thiazolidinediones, dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors, SGLT2 inhibitors, and glucagon-like peptide-1 analogs. As of 2015 there was no significant difference between these agents. A 2018 review found that SGLT2 inhibitors may be better than glucagon-like peptide-1 analogs or dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors.
If early symptoms of diabetes are missed and treatment isn't started, chemicals called ketones can build up in the blood and cause stomach pain, nausea, vomiting, fruity-smelling breath, breathing problems, and even loss of consciousness. Sometimes these symptoms are mistaken for the flu or appendicitis. Doctors call this serious condition diabetic ketoacidosis, or DKA.
Diabetes Tracker – The American Journal of Preventive Medicine ranked this app, which has no free version, No. 1. It boasts an intensive and easy-to-follow educational component in addition to features for monitoring blood glucose, carbs, net carbs and more. Easy to see the big picture with daily and weekly reports. For some, it may be worth the extra expense.
American Indian/Alaska Native. American Indian/Alaska Native women have the highest rate of diabetes among all racial and ethnic groups in the United States. It is more than twice as common for American Indian/Alaska Native women to be diagnosed with diabetes compared to white women. But rates of diabetes are different in different regions of the United States. Rates are lowest in Alaska Native people and highest in people who are American Indian and live in certain areas of the Southwest.1
This is a special edition of the iCookbook app just for people with diabetes. The app delivers new, free diabetes-friendly recipes every month. It also has built-in kitchen tools like conversion charts and timers and voice activation, so the user can proceed through a recipe even with messy hands. The user can save and share recipes or even pull up a random one by shaking the phone.
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An award-winning diabetes logbook app, Diabetes:M allows users to enter glucose readings, insulin injections, and carbohydrates consumed at meals. There is a bolus calculator as well as a food database for looking up and tracking various foods. Detailed graphs, analytical charts, and the ability to generate reports to share with health-care providers are some of the additional features.
The Diabetes Control and Complications Trial (DCCT) was a clinical study conducted by the United States National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK) that was published in the New England Journal of Medicine in 1993. Test subjects all had diabetes mellitus type 1 and were randomized to a tight glycemic arm and a control arm with the standard of care at the time; people were followed for an average of seven years, and people in the treatment had dramatically lower rates of diabetic complications. It was as a landmark study at the time, and significantly changed the management of all forms of diabetes.
Glucose Buddy Diabetes Tracker also allows you to track insulin, carbohydrates, weight, and ketones. It allows users to save and view a history of their blood sugar records which helps you identify trends in your health. You can schedule reminders to measure your blood sugar. The app tracks what time of day you are checking your blood sugar. You can also add a note to each record. Glucose integrates with HealthKit by writing all inputted entries to the Health app. Subscriptions are available for premium features such as other apps, graphs, and custom tagging tools.
That’s because when your blood sugar isn’t under control, the excess glucose in your body can increase your chance of developing serious related health conditions. Heart disease, kidney disease, vision issues, and nerve damage are among the problems that can result from poorly managed diabetes, says William Sullivan, MD, a senior physician at the Joslin Diabetes Center and an assistant professor of medicine at Harvard Medical School in Boston.
Designed for smartphones and tablets this application is intended to help diabetics to manage better their diabetes and keep it under control. Users can log their values in the logbook and keep the records with them all the time. The application tracks almost all aspects of the diabetes treatment and provides detailed reports, charts, and statistics to share via email with the supervising specialists. It provides various tools to the diabetics, so they can find the trends in blood glucose levels and allows them to calculate normal and prolonged insulin boluses using its highly effective, top-notch bolus calculator.
SparkPeople bills itself as “your personal diet and lifestyle coach,” helping you track small details but also offer a bird's eye view of your wellness. You track your data using its food database, bar-code scanner, and exercise logs. It will sync with many fitness trackers and has built-in videos with exercise demonstrations, as well as a meal-planning function.
Researchers looked at 5,185 apps for phones running Google’s Android software or Apple’s iOS system. Out of this total, they found 371 apps that claimed to provide several key components for type 2 diabetes management: recording blood sugar data; reminding patients when they need to do specific things to manage the illness; and educating patients on how to handle conditions like dangerously low or high blood sugar.
There is no known preventive measure for type 1 diabetes. Type 2 diabetes—which accounts for 85–90% of all cases worldwide—can often be prevented or delayed by maintaining a normal body weight, engaging in physical activity, and eating a healthy diet. Higher levels of physical activity (more than 90 minutes per day) reduce the risk of diabetes by 28%. Dietary changes known to be effective in helping to prevent diabetes include maintaining a diet rich in whole grains and fiber, and choosing good fats, such as the polyunsaturated fats found in nuts, vegetable oils, and fish. Limiting sugary beverages and eating less red meat and other sources of saturated fat can also help prevent diabetes. Tobacco smoking is also associated with an increased risk of diabetes and its complications, so smoking cessation can be an important preventive measure as well.
Type 2 diabetes has long been known to progress despite glucose-lowering treatment, with 50% of individuals requiring insulin therapy within 10 years (1). This seemingly inexorable deterioration in control has been interpreted to mean that the condition is treatable but not curable. Clinical guidelines recognize this deterioration with algorithms of sequential addition of therapies. Insulin resistance and β-cell dysfunction are known to be the major pathophysiologic factors driving type 2 diabetes; however, these factors come into play with very different time courses. Insulin resistance in muscle is the earliest detectable abnormality of type 2 diabetes (2). In contrast, changes in insulin secretion determine both the onset of hyperglycemia and the progression toward insulin therapy (3,4). The etiology of each of these two major factors appears to be distinct. Insulin resistance may be caused by an insulin signaling defect (5), glucose transporter defect (6), or lipotoxicity (7), and β-cell dysfunction is postulated to be caused by amyloid deposition in the islets (8), oxidative stress (9), excess fatty acid (10), or lack of incretin effect (11). The demonstration of reversibility of type 2 diabetes offers the opportunity to evaluate the time sequence of pathophysiologic events during return to normal glucose metabolism and, hence, to unraveling the etiology.
Maybe. You should be tested for diabetes if you are between 40 and 70 years old and are overweight or obese. Your doctor may recommend testing earlier than age 40 if you also have other risk factors for diabetes. Also, talk to your doctor about diabetes testing if you have signs or symptoms of diabetes. Your doctor will use a blood test to see if you have diabetes.
There are a number of medications and other health problems that can predispose to diabetes. Some of the medications include: glucocorticoids, thiazides, beta blockers, atypical antipsychotics, and statins. Those who have previously had gestational diabetes are at a higher risk of developing type 2 diabetes. Other health problems that are associated include: acromegaly, Cushing's syndrome, hyperthyroidism, pheochromocytoma, and certain cancers such as glucagonomas. Testosterone deficiency is also associated with type 2 diabetes.
Exposure to certain viral infections (mumps and Coxsackie viruses) or other environmental toxins may serve to trigger abnormal antibody responses that cause damage to the pancreas cells where insulin is made. Some of the antibodies seen in type 1 diabetes include anti-islet cell antibodies, anti-insulin antibodies and anti-glutamic decarboxylase antibodies. These antibodies can be detected in the majority of patients, and may help determine which individuals are at risk for developing type 1 diabetes.
Managing your blood glucose, blood pressure, and cholesterol, and quitting smoking if you smoke, are important ways to manage your type 2 diabetes. Lifestyle changes that include planning healthy meals, limiting calories if you are overweight, and being physically active are also part of managing your diabetes. So is taking any prescribed medicines. Work with your health care team to create a diabetes care plan that works for you.
Diabetes that's triggered by pregnancy is called gestational diabetes (pregnancy, to some degree, leads to insulin resistance). It is often diagnosed in middle or late pregnancy. Because high blood sugar levels in a mother are circulated through the placenta to the baby, gestational diabetes must be controlled to protect the baby's growth and development.
Another diabetes-related sexual dysfunction symptom in men is reduced amounts of ejaculation, or retrograde ejaculation. Retrograde ejaculation is a condition in which the semen goes into the bladder, rather than out of the body through the urethra. Diabetes and damage to the blood vessels causes nerve damage to the muscles that control the bladder and urethra, which results in this problem.
Pros: Sugar Sense provides a community support forum for people with type 2 diabetes and offers diabetes prevention information. The app works with iHealth’s Smart Gluco-Monitoring System and its iHealth app, but only on Apple devices. It pulls data from the My Diet Diary app and from fitness trackers such as FitBit, Jawbone, and iHealth, and it sends data to Apple’s Health app.
In the United States, 84.1 million adults—more than 1 in 3—have prediabetes. What’s more, 90% of them don’t know they have it. With prediabetes, blood sugar levels are higher than normal, but not high enough yet to be diagnosed as type 2 diabetes. Prediabetes raises your risk for type 2 diabetes, heart disease, and stroke. The good news is if you have prediabetes, a CDC-recognized lifestyle change program can help you take healthy steps to reverse it.