Monitor your blood glucose and insulin and find out when your body needs adjustments with BG Monitor. It calculates carbs for you and supports U.S. and international units of glucose measurement for all of your monitoring needs. Take photos of meals so you can easily remember what you ate. Email your CSV file reports and back up your data to Google Drive to ensure you always have vital information to share with your healthcare team.
Most strokes happen when a blood clot blocks a blood vessel within or leading to the brain. Type 2 diabetes increases your risk of stroke by two to four times, according to the National Stroke Association. Fortunately, the same steps that will help you prevent heart disease — controlling your blood sugar and blood pressure levels, maintaining a healthy weight, exercising regularly, and not smoking — are also the best ways to help reduce your risk of stroke.

Lifestyle factors are important to the development of type 2 diabetes, including obesity and being overweight (defined by a body mass index of greater than 25), lack of physical activity, poor diet, stress, and urbanization.[10][31] Excess body fat is associated with 30% of cases in those of Chinese and Japanese descent, 60–80% of cases in those of European and African descent, and 100% of cases in Pima Indians and Pacific Islanders.[13] Among those who are not obese, a high waist–hip ratio is often present.[13] Smoking appears to increase the risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus.[32]


^ Jump up to: a b Picot J, Jones J, Colquitt JL, Gospodarevskaya E, Loveman E, Baxter L, Clegg AJ (September 2009). "The clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of bariatric (weight loss) surgery for obesity: a systematic review and economic evaluation". Health Technology Assessment. 13 (41): 1–190, 215–357, iii–iv. doi:10.3310/hta13410. PMID 19726018.
If the amount of insulin available is insufficient, or if cells respond poorly to the effects of insulin (insulin insensitivity or insulin resistance), or if the insulin itself is defective, then glucose is not absorbed properly by the body cells that require it, and is not stored appropriately in the liver and muscles. The net effect is persistently high levels of blood glucose, poor protein synthesis, and other metabolic derangements, such as acidosis.[59]
^ Kyu HH, Bachman VF, Alexander LT, Mumford JE, Afshin A, Estep K, Veerman JL, Delwiche K, Iannarone ML, Moyer ML, Cercy K, Vos T, Murray CJ, Forouzanfar MH (August 2016). "Physical activity and risk of breast cancer, colon cancer, diabetes, ischemic heart disease, and ischemic stroke events: systematic review and dose-response meta-analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013". BMJ. 354: i3857. doi:10.1136/bmj.i3857. PMC 4979358. PMID 27510511.
When glucose concentration in the blood remains high over time, the kidneys reach a threshold of reabsorption, and the body excretes glucose in the urine (glycosuria).[61] This increases the osmotic pressure of the urine and inhibits reabsorption of water by the kidney, resulting in increased urine production (polyuria) and increased fluid loss. Lost blood volume is replaced osmotically from water in body cells and other body compartments, causing dehydration and increased thirst (polydipsia).[59] In addition, intracellular glucose deficiency stimulates appetite leading to excessive food intake (polyphagia).[62]
The classic symptoms of untreated diabetes are unintended weight loss, polyuria (increased urination), polydipsia (increased thirst), and polyphagia (increased hunger).[20] Symptoms may develop rapidly (weeks or months) in type 1 DM, while they usually develop much more slowly and may be subtle or absent in type 2 DM. Other symptoms of diabetes mellitus include weight loss and tiredness.[21]

Most cases of diabetes involve many genes, with each being a small contributor to an increased probability of becoming a type 2 diabetic.[10] If one identical twin has diabetes, the chance of the other developing diabetes within his lifetime is greater than 90%, while the rate for nonidentical siblings is 25–50%.[13] As of 2011, more than 36 genes had been found that contribute to the risk of type 2 diabetes.[38] All of these genes together still only account for 10% of the total heritable component of the disease.[38] The TCF7L2 allele, for example, increases the risk of developing diabetes by 1.5 times and is the greatest risk of the common genetic variants.[13] Most of the genes linked to diabetes are involved in beta cell functions.[13]
"The mySugr Junior App was developed to make managing diabetes easier for kids. It also enables parents to keep control over the therapy, even when they're not around and their child is at school or out with friends. The app resembles a game in which the children get points for every entry. The goal is to score a particular amount of points every day. This encourages kids to take care of their diabetes regularly.
Hyperglycemia or high blood sugar is a serious health problem for diabetics. There are two types of hyperglycemia, 1) fasting, and 2)postprandial or after meal hyperglycemia. Hyperglycemia can also lead to ketoacidosis or hyperglycemic hyperosmolar nonketotic syndrome (HHNS). There are a variety of causes of hyperglycemia in people with diabetes. Symptoms of high blood sugar may include increased thirst, headaches, blurred vision, and frequent urination.Treatment can be achieved through lifestyle changes or medications changes. Carefully monitoring blood glucose levels is key to prevention.
"Secondary" diabetes refers to elevated blood sugar levels from another medical condition. Secondary diabetes may develop when the pancreatic tissue responsible for the production of insulin is destroyed by disease, such as chronic pancreatitis (inflammation of the pancreas by toxins like excessive alcohol), trauma, or surgical removal of the pancreas.

The symptoms may relate to fluid loss and polyuria, but the course may also be insidious. Diabetic animals are more prone to infections. The long-term complications recognized in humans are much rarer in animals. The principles of treatment (weight loss, oral antidiabetics, subcutaneous insulin) and management of emergencies (e.g. ketoacidosis) are similar to those in humans.[123]
Type 2 diabetes can occur at any age, but it most commonly begins in middle age or later. Signs and symptoms develop slowly over years. They include frequent urination (polyuria), excessive thirst (polydipsia), fatigue, blurred vision, tingling or loss of feeling in the hands and feet (diabetic neuropathy), sores that do not heal well, and weight loss. If blood sugar levels are not controlled through medication or diet, type 2 diabetes can cause long-lasting (chronic) health problems including heart disease and stroke; nerve damage; and damage to the kidneys, eyes, and other parts of the body.
Rosiglitazone, a thiazolidinedione, has not been found to improve long-term outcomes even though it improves blood sugar levels.[95] Additionally it is associated with increased rates of heart disease and death.[96] Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) prevent kidney disease and improve outcomes in those with diabetes.[97][98] The similar medications angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) do not.[98] A 2016 review recommended treating to a systolic blood pressure of 140 to 150 mmHg.[99]
Establish your weight goals, enter meal information, and receive customized tips to help you maintain a healthy weight. This app does all the work for you to evaluate your food diary and guide your weight management plan. Easily enter foods into the app by scanning barcodes. Get access to a large food database which can assign grades to food so you can get a quick view of how healthy or unhealthy certain choices can be.

Since cardiovascular disease is a serious complication associated with diabetes, some have recommended blood pressure levels below 130/80 mmHg.[89] However, evidence supports less than or equal to somewhere between 140/90 mmHg to 160/100 mmHg; the only additional benefit found for blood pressure targets beneath this range was an isolated decrease in stroke risk, and this was accompanied by an increased risk of other serious adverse events.[90][91] A 2016 review found potential harm to treating lower than 140 mmHg.[92] Among medications that lower blood pressure, angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) improve outcomes in those with DM while the similar medications angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) do not.[93] Aspirin is also recommended for people with cardiovascular problems, however routine use of aspirin has not been found to improve outcomes in uncomplicated diabetes.[94]

Pregnancy. Gestational diabetes is a kind of diabetes that happens only during pregnancy. Although gestational diabetes goes away after pregnancy, about half of women who had gestational diabetes are diagnosed with type 2 diabetes within 15 years. Even if they don’t have gestational diabetes, women who give birth to babies who weigh 9 pounds or more are more likely to develop type 2 diabetes later in life. The American Academy of Family Physicians (AAFP) recommends screening for gestational diabetes in pregnant women after the 24th week of pregnancy. The AAFP believes there is not enough evidence to determine the benefit and harm of screening for gestational diabetes in pregnant women before the 24th week of pregnancy.


MySugr aims to make diabetes “suck less” by syncing with other devices to help you monitor vital numbers such as weight, basal rates, and sugar levels. Make sure you’re logging data by setting up reminders that appear on your phone. This can help you stay on top of your condition and report critical facts to your doctor. The pro version of the app can be activated at no charge with some Accu-Chek devices when ordered through mySugr, or you can pay the $2.99 monthly or $27.99 yearly subscription.
Most cases of diabetes involve many genes, with each being a small contributor to an increased probability of becoming a type 2 diabetic.[10] If one identical twin has diabetes, the chance of the other developing diabetes within his lifetime is greater than 90%, while the rate for nonidentical siblings is 25–50%.[13] As of 2011, more than 36 genes had been found that contribute to the risk of type 2 diabetes.[38] All of these genes together still only account for 10% of the total heritable component of the disease.[38] The TCF7L2 allele, for example, increases the risk of developing diabetes by 1.5 times and is the greatest risk of the common genetic variants.[13] Most of the genes linked to diabetes are involved in beta cell functions.[13]
Heart disease and stroke. People who have diabetes are at greater risk for heart disease and stroke. The risk is even greater for people who have diabetes and smoke, have high blood pressure, have a family history of heart disease, or are overweight. Heart disease is easiest to treat when it is caught early. It is very important to see your doctor on a regular basis. He or she can test for early signs of heart disease. This includes checking cholesterol levels. If your cholesterol is higher than the recommended level, your doctor will talk to you about lifestyle changes and medicine to help get your cholesterol under control.
Dietary factors also influence the risk of developing type 2 DM. Consumption of sugar-sweetened drinks in excess is associated with an increased risk.[45][46] The type of fats in the diet is also important, with saturated fat and trans fats increasing the risk and polyunsaturated and monounsaturated fat decreasing the risk.[44] Eating lots of white rice, and other starches, also may increase the risk of diabetes.[47] A lack of physical activity is believed to cause 7% of cases.[48]
One of the key factors in Joslin’s treatment of diabetes is tight blood glucose control, so be certain that your treatment helps get your blood glucose readings as close to normal as safely possible. Patients should discuss with their doctors what their target blood glucose range is. It is also important to determine what your goal is for A1C readings (a test that determines how well your diabetes is controlled over the past 2-3 months). By maintaining blood glucose in the desired range, you’ll likely avoid many of the complications some people with diabetes face.

Though it may be transient, untreated GDM can damage the health of the fetus or mother. Risks to the baby include macrosomia (high birth weight), congenital heart and central nervous system abnormalities, and skeletal muscle malformations. Increased levels of insulin in a fetus's blood may inhibit fetal surfactant production and cause infant respiratory distress syndrome. A high blood bilirubin level may result from red blood cell destruction. In severe cases, perinatal death may occur, most commonly as a result of poor placental perfusion due to vascular impairment. Labor induction may be indicated with decreased placental function. A caesarean section may be performed if there is marked fetal distress or an increased risk of injury associated with macrosomia, such as shoulder dystocia.[50]

"Secondary" diabetes refers to elevated blood sugar levels from another medical condition. Secondary diabetes may develop when the pancreatic tissue responsible for the production of insulin is destroyed by disease, such as chronic pancreatitis (inflammation of the pancreas by toxins like excessive alcohol), trauma, or surgical removal of the pancreas.
For Candace Clark, bariatric surgery meant the difference between struggling with weight issues, including medical problems triggered by obesity, and enjoying renewed health and energy. "I felt like I was slowly dying," says Candace Clark, a 54-year-old Barron, Wisconsin, resident who had dealt with weight issues for years. "I was tired of feeling the way [...]

Endocrinology is the specialty of medicine that deals with hormone disturbances, and both endocrinologists and pediatric endocrinologists manage patients with diabetes. People with diabetes may also be treated by family medicine or internal medicine specialists. When complications arise, people with diabetes may be treated by other specialists, including neurologists, gastroenterologists, ophthalmologists, surgeons, cardiologists, or others.

Rosiglitazone, a thiazolidinedione, has not been found to improve long-term outcomes even though it improves blood sugar levels.[95] Additionally it is associated with increased rates of heart disease and death.[96] Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) prevent kidney disease and improve outcomes in those with diabetes.[97][98] The similar medications angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) do not.[98] A 2016 review recommended treating to a systolic blood pressure of 140 to 150 mmHg.[99]
Whole-body insulin resistance is the earliest predictor of type 2 diabetes onset, and this mainly reflects muscle insulin resistance (26). However, careful separation of the contributions of muscle and liver have shown that early improvement in control of fasting plasma glucose level is associated only with improvement in liver insulin sensitivity (20,21). It is clear that the resumption of normal or near-normal diurnal blood glucose control does not require improvement in muscle insulin sensitivity. Although this finding may at first appear surprising, it is supported by a wide range of earlier observations. Mice totally lacking in skeletal muscle insulin receptors do not develop diabetes (27). Humans who have the PPP1R3A genetic variant of muscle glycogen synthase cannot store glycogen in muscle after meals but are not necessarily hyperglycemic (28). Many normoglycemic individuals maintain normal blood glucose levels with a degree of muscle insulin resistance identical to those with type 2 diabetes (29).
Enter your weight, blood pressure, HbA1c levels, and more into Glucose Buddy and see why people with diabetes find this app effective and easy to use. It also lets you track carb intake and workouts, and monitor trends so you get a better idea of how to best manage your condition. Subscriptions are $14.99 per month or $59.99 per year and give users access to premium features such as other fitness apps, advanced graphs, and custom tagging tools.
^ Boussageon R, Supper I, Bejan-Angoulvant T, Kellou N, Cucherat M, Boissel JP, Kassai B, Moreau A, Gueyffier F, Cornu C (2012). Groop L, ed. "Reappraisal of metformin efficacy in the treatment of type 2 diabetes: a meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials". PLoS Medicine. 9 (4): e1001204. doi:10.1371/journal.pmed.1001204. PMC 3323508. PMID 22509138.

Melissa Conrad Stöppler, MD, is a U.S. board-certified Anatomic Pathologist with subspecialty training in the fields of Experimental and Molecular Pathology. Dr. Stöppler's educational background includes a BA with Highest Distinction from the University of Virginia and an MD from the University of North Carolina. She completed residency training in Anatomic Pathology at Georgetown University followed by subspecialty fellowship training in molecular diagnostics and experimental pathology.
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