Type 1 diabetes mellitus is characterized by loss of the insulin-producing beta cells of the pancreatic islets, leading to insulin deficiency. This type can be further classified as immune-mediated or idiopathic. The majority of type 1 diabetes is of the immune-mediated nature, in which a T cell-mediated autoimmune attack leads to the loss of beta cells and thus insulin. It causes approximately 10% of diabetes mellitus cases in North America and Europe. Most affected people are otherwise healthy and of a healthy weight when onset occurs. Sensitivity and responsiveness to insulin are usually normal, especially in the early stages. Type 1 diabetes can affect children or adults, but was traditionally termed "juvenile diabetes" because a majority of these diabetes cases were found in children.
Health2Sync helps you log your blood sugar, blood pressure, weight, medication, diet, exercise, and even your mood through the app. Health2Sync provides you helpful feedback based on your blood sugar records to help you manage diabetes. View current and past trends in your health. The app provides a diabetes support community. Invite your friends and family members to join you on your journey. Premium Features of the app include a PDF report feature.
The mySugr logbook app is an easy and complete diabetes tracker. Log and monitor your daily blood sugar level, record your insulin, use the app to track your carbohydrate count, and make notes along the way. + Easy and personalized logging screen to enter information about your diet, medications, carbohydrate intake, meals, blood glucose levels that can be graphed. Motivating challenges and feedback to help cope with Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes. The app provides detailed reports that you can send to your doctor. mySugr Pro can be activated at no charge with some Accu-Chek® devices when ordered (for free) through mySugr or with a subscription.
Still, these choices are just the beginning, and there are lots of other options to explore. We’ve listed our top picks for several types of apps, focusing on those that have numerous and consistent good reviews from users and have been updated recently. Many offer similar features, so you may want to download a few and see which is easiest for you to use.
Supporting self-management also involves helping people address barriers to a healthy lifestyle including diabetes-related distress and comorbid conditions, such as depression or pain. Family physicians are particularly well positioned to identify the stressors experienced by patients and to support them in addressing their highest-priority needs. More frequent visits for people struggling to achieve their goals, ideally involving a structured team-based approach, can enable more effective implementation of self-management support.19 For those not practising in contexts with easy access to a multidisciplinary team, resources from Diabetes Canada have been developed to help implement these recommendations in practice (guidelines.diabetes.ca/reduce-complications/the-5rs), including handouts for people about self-management in general, featuring ABCDES3 for patients (guidelines.diabetes.ca/docs/patient-resources/my-diabetes-care-not-just-about-blood-sugar.pdf), plus handouts and practice tools that assist in identifying and managing sources of diabetes-related distress (guidelines.diabetes.ca/selfmanagementeducation/psychosocial).
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This content is provided as a service of the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK), part of the National Institutes of Health. The NIDDK translates and disseminates research findings through its clearinghouses and education programs to increase knowledge and understanding about health and disease among patients, health professionals, and the public. Content produced by the NIDDK is carefully reviewed by NIDDK scientists and other experts.
Indigestion (dyspepsia) can be caused by diseases or conditions that involve the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, and also by some diseases and conditions that do not involve the GI tract. Indigestion can be a chronic condition in which the symptoms fluctuate infrequency and intensity. Signs and symptoms that accompany indigestion include pain in the chest, upper abdominal pain, belching, nausea, bloating, abdominal distention, feeling full after eating only a small portion of food, and rarely, vomiting.
The guideline D&I committee co-chairs developed a process of prioritizing and distilling key messages relevant to primary care from 313 recommendations in 38 guideline chapters (Figure 1).8 The prioritization was completed anonymously by members of the guideline writing committee, people with diabetes, and members of the D&I committee. Given the large number of recommendations, the first step of the prioritization exercise was to select guideline chapters; each member was asked to select 10 chapters, then, from these chapters, to select and rank 10 recommendations. Based on the number of votes for each recommendation, a list of 22 recommendations was compiled. This was followed by thematic analysis and member checking to summarize key messages. Specifically, the co-chairs (endocrinologist C.H.Y. and FP N.M.I.) collaboratively sorted the recommendations into conceptually similar groups (themes) and drafted key messages that represented these themes. Next, they sought input from the committee members to refine the key messages, similar to the process of member checking in qualitative research.11
The guideline states that treatments should be added (as tolerated) to achieve hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), blood pressure, and cholesterol targets in accordance with patient preferences and goals. Since the last guideline update in 2013, the main change in this aspect of the guideline reflects new evidence that canagliflozin, empagliflozin, and liraglutide reduce the risk of cardiovascular events in patients who have a history of vascular disease.8 (Similar evidence for additional medications was not available at the time of guideline development.) The guideline states that evidence-based medications for vascular protection should be prescribed whenever appropriate:
Meanwhile the ADA, in their most recent update on the Standards of Medical Care in Diabetes, have lifted the restriction on sodium in the diet of those with diabetes. This brings the recommended daily levels of sodium for people with diabetes in line with the general population at 2,300 milligrams (mg) per day. They also acknowledge that there is not a single diet that fits all people with diabetes.
“We usually see patients quarterly for appointments, which means the other 361 days of the year, they’re on their own,” says endocrinologist Amber Champion, MD, at Great Plains Health in North Platte, Nebraska. “They need to have the knowledge and tools to take care of themselves. Diabetes-related apps can be useful to help keep track of all the data and see it visually. They can also help educate and teach patients to spot trends and keep their data organized.”
That’s because when your blood sugar isn’t under control, the excess glucose in your body can increase your chance of developing serious related health conditions. Heart disease, kidney disease, vision issues, and nerve damage are among the problems that can result from poorly managed diabetes, says William Sullivan, MD, a senior physician at the Joslin Diabetes Center and an assistant professor of medicine at Harvard Medical School in Boston.
Pros: Sugar Sense provides a community support forum for people with type 2 diabetes and offers diabetes prevention information. The app works with iHealth’s Smart Gluco-Monitoring System and its iHealth app, but only on Apple devices. It pulls data from the My Diet Diary app and from fitness trackers such as FitBit, Jawbone, and iHealth, and it sends data to Apple’s Health app.