Keep your diabetes under control by tracking your sugar levels and other factors that influence how you feel. Diabetes:M delivers one-click diabetes management by calculating normal and prolonged insulin boluses and offering an extensive nutrition database. You can set reminders to check your blood sugar or log exercise time. Best of all, it works with different glucometers and insulin pumps to analyze values from imported data.


In animals, diabetes is most commonly encountered in dogs and cats. Middle-aged animals are most commonly affected. Female dogs are twice as likely to be affected as males, while according to some sources, male cats are also more prone than females. In both species, all breeds may be affected, but some small dog breeds are particularly likely to develop diabetes, such as Miniature Poodles.[123]
^ Sattar N, Preiss D, Murray HM, Welsh P, Buckley BM, de Craen AJ, Seshasai SR, McMurray JJ, Freeman DJ, Jukema JW, Macfarlane PW, Packard CJ, Stott DJ, Westendorp RG, Shepherd J, Davis BR, Pressel SL, Marchioli R, Marfisi RM, Maggioni AP, Tavazzi L, Tognoni G, Kjekshus J, Pedersen TR, Cook TJ, Gotto AM, Clearfield MB, Downs JR, Nakamura H, Ohashi Y, Mizuno K, Ray KK, Ford I (February 2010). "Statins and risk of incident diabetes: a collaborative meta-analysis of randomised statin trials". Lancet. 375 (9716): 735–42. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(09)61965-6. PMID 20167359.
The body obtains glucose from three main sources: the intestinal absorption of food; the breakdown of glycogen (glycogenolysis), the storage form of glucose found in the liver; and gluconeogenesis, the generation of glucose from non-carbohydrate substrates in the body.[59] Insulin plays a critical role in balancing glucose levels in the body. Insulin can inhibit the breakdown of glycogen or the process of gluconeogenesis, it can stimulate the transport of glucose into fat and muscle cells, and it can stimulate the storage of glucose in the form of glycogen.[59]
Another diabetes-related sexual dysfunction symptom in men is reduced amounts of ejaculation, or retrograde ejaculation. Retrograde ejaculation is a condition in which the semen goes into the bladder, rather than out of the body through the urethra. Diabetes and damage to the blood vessels causes nerve damage to the muscles that control the bladder and urethra, which results in this problem.
This summary tries to organize information from the full guideline relevant for FPs, but we understand that each practice and each patient is unique. The recommendations prioritized for emphasis in this document might not match the needs of each practice, and the needs of each patient must be assessed through shared decision making. Many patients with type 2 diabetes might not have coverage for medications, and the newer agents might be prohibitively expensive for such patients. It is also plausible that emergent evidence based on real-world data will identify issues with the newer agents that lead to changes in the guideline recommendations. We further recognize that access to supports to implement best practices is not equitably distributed.20,21 For example, some patients have more ready access to allied health professionals than others. These factors (and others) undoubtedly affect diabetes care and outcomes. While many clinical activities are appropriate and advisable in the primary care of a patient with diabetes, the starting point for this summary was the text of the Diabetes Canada clinical practice guidelines. Many other guidelines related to the care of patients who have diabetes exist. The Diabetes Canada guidelines are aligned with the Canadian Cardiovascular Society guidelines for lipids16 and the Hypertension Canada guidelines for blood pressure targets.22 However, not all guidelines have the same recommendations, likely owing to variable weighting of the importance of different outcomes in the evidence base. For instance, recent guidelines from the American College of Physicians encourage higher HbA1c targets owing to the lack of evidence that lower targets are associated with reduced risk of cardiovascular outcomes.23 Additionally, simplified lipid guidelines for FPs de-emphasize targets for low-density lipoprotein to focus on use of evidence-based medications (eg, statins).24 Finally, it is important to note that this manuscript seeks only to summarize Diabetes Canada guideline recommendations deemed most relevant for the primary care management of adults with type 2 diabetes by a selected, albeit multidisciplinary, group; further information about prevention and management of all types of diabetes can be accessed at guidelines.diabetes.ca.
Yes. Once you get a new kidney, you may need a higher dose of insulin. Your appetite will improve so your new kidney will break down insulin better than your injured one. You will use steroids to keep your body from rejecting your new kidney. If your new kidney fails, dialysis treatment can be started while you wait for another kidney. To learn more about kidney transplant click here.

Several other signs and symptoms can mark the onset of diabetes although they are not specific to the disease. In addition to the known ones above, they include blurred vision, headache, fatigue, slow healing of cuts, and itchy skin. Prolonged high blood glucose can cause glucose absorption in the lens of the eye, which leads to changes in its shape, resulting in vision changes. Long-term vision loss can also be caused by diabetic retinopathy. A number of skin rashes that can occur in diabetes are collectively known as diabetic dermadromes.[22]
ACEI—angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor, ARB—angiotensin receptor blocker, ASA—acetylsalicylic acid, BG—blood glucose, BP—blood pressure, CGM—continuous glucose monitoring, CKD—chronic kidney disease, CV—cardiovascular, CVD—cardiovascular disease, DPP4I—dipeptidyl peptidase 4 inhibitor, GLP1RA—glucagonlike peptide 1 receptor agonist, HbA1c—hemoglobin A1c, LDL-C—low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, MR—modified release, NPH—neutral protamine Hagedorn, PCSK9—proprotein convertase subtilisin-kexin type 9, SGLT2I—sodium glucose transporter 2 inhibitor, SMBG—self-monitoring of blood glucose, TZD—thiazolidinedione.

Nerve damage from diabetes is called diabetic neuropathy and is also caused by disease of small blood vessels. In essence, the blood flow to the nerves is limited, leaving the nerves without blood flow, and they get damaged or die as a result (a term known as ischemia). Symptoms of diabetic nerve damage include numbness, burning, and aching of the feet and lower extremities. When the nerve disease causes a complete loss of sensation in the feet, patients may not be aware of injuries to the feet, and fail to properly protect them. Shoes or other protection should be worn as much as possible. Seemingly minor skin injuries should be attended to promptly to avoid serious infections. Because of poor blood circulation, diabetic foot injuries may not heal. Sometimes, minor foot injuries can lead to serious infection, ulcers, and even gangrene, necessitating surgical amputation of toes, feet, and other infected parts.


For our bodies to work properly we need to convert glucose (sugar) from food into energy. A hormone called insulin is essential for the conversion of glucose into energy. In people with diabetes, insulin is no longer produced or not produced in sufficient amounts by the body. When people with diabetes eat glucose, which is in foods such as breads, cereals, fruit and starchy vegetables, legumes, milk, yoghurt and sweets, it can’t be converted into energy.
Insulin can be used at any time in the course of type 2 diabetes (grade D, consensus) (see link in Relevant Tools column for examples of insulin initiation and titration in people with type 2 diabetes). In people not achieving glycemic targets with existing non-insulin antihyperglycemic medication, the addition of a once-daily basal insulin regimen should be considered over premixed insulin or bolus-only regimens to reduce weight gain and hypoglycemia (grade B, level II)
This is the only app in the list designed for doctors, one of a series of Johns Hopkins Guides on different diseases. The diabetes guide, which is a $29.99 in-app purchase "contains the essential diagnosis, classification, and management information needed for diabetic care" and enables physicians to "answer questions with recommendations for complications, drugs, and other treatments," according to the app store description.
Some cases of diabetes are caused by the body's tissue receptors not responding to insulin (even when insulin levels are normal, which is what separates it from type 2 diabetes); this form is very uncommon. Genetic mutations (autosomal or mitochondrial) can lead to defects in beta cell function. Abnormal insulin action may also have been genetically determined in some cases. Any disease that causes extensive damage to the pancreas may lead to diabetes (for example, chronic pancreatitis and cystic fibrosis). Diseases associated with excessive secretion of insulin-antagonistic hormones can cause diabetes (which is typically resolved once the hormone excess is removed). Many drugs impair insulin secretion and some toxins damage pancreatic beta cells. The ICD-10 (1992) diagnostic entity, malnutrition-related diabetes mellitus (MRDM or MMDM, ICD-10 code E12), was deprecated by the World Health Organization (WHO) when the current taxonomy was introduced in 1999.[52]
Fasting plasma glucose concentration depends entirely on the fasting rate of hepatic glucose production and, hence, on its sensitivity to suppression by insulin. Hepatic insulin sensitivity cannot be inferred from observed postprandial change in hepatic glycogen concentration because glucose transport into the hepatocyte is not rate limiting, unlike in muscle, and hyperglycemia itself drives the process of glycogen synthesis irrespective of insulin action. Indeed, postprandial glycogen storage in liver has been shown to be moderately impaired in type 2 diabetes (50) compared with the marked impairment in skeletal muscle (51).
This British-made diabetes app raised $11,600 on Kickstarter in February 2013. It's a free app for diabetes management that focuses on quick data entry and aesthetically designed interactive charts, as well as reminders that can trigger either at a particular time or in particular location. The app helps people with both type 1 and type 2 diabetes monitor how much and how often they’re eating, their blood glucose levels, and whether they’ve taken their medication.
Diabetes mellitus occurs throughout the world but is more common (especially type 2) in more developed countries. The greatest increase in rates has however been seen in low- and middle-income countries,[101] where more than 80% of diabetic deaths occur.[105] The fastest prevalence increase is expected to occur in Asia and Africa, where most people with diabetes will probably live in 2030.[106] The increase in rates in developing countries follows the trend of urbanization and lifestyle changes, including increasingly sedentary lifestyles, less physically demanding work and the global nutrition transition, marked by increased intake of foods that are high energy-dense but nutrient-poor (often high in sugar and saturated fats, sometimes referred to as the "Western-style" diet).[101][106] The global number of diabetes cases might increase by 48% between 2017 and 2045.[8]
Increasing physical activity is a key element in controlling weight and reducing the likelihood of developing type 2 diabetes. Brisk walking is a great way to become more active, and every step counts. Aim for an average of 30 minutes per day, or 150 minutes per week. Consult your family doctor or health professional before increasing your physical activity level.
Type 2 diabetes usually begins with insulin resistance, a condition in which muscle, liver, and fat cells do not use insulin well. As a result, your body needs more insulin to help glucose enter cells. At first, the pancreas makes more insulin to keep up with the added demand. Over time, the pancreas can’t make enough insulin, and blood glucose levels rise.
Carb Manager is the preferred food app for Pamala Moberly, 56, a retired missionary in Tifton, Georgia. “I like that it helps me keep track of total carbs, net carbs, fiber, proteins, and fats. I can even make my own recipes in this app, and it will calculate all of those numbers,” she says. She uses the free version, but adding the subscription service allows you to also enter blood glucose values. (The current subscription price is $8.49 per month or $39.99 per year.)

Diabetes:M is an award-winning diabetes logbook app that was first published in Google Play in April 2013. It was developed by diabetics to meet the needs of people who want to manage all aspects of their condition. Users can track, analyze, review and export data in great detail. Today Diabetes:M is an established tool with nearly 350 000 installations and over 50 000 active users. The application is well known to medical professionals, with many diabetes specialists recommending it to their patients.


Guidelines do not implement themselves.5 To integrate guideline recommendations into routine clinical care, FPs must not only be aware of and agree with them, but also must be able to adopt and adhere to them whenever applicable.6 To this end, a clinical practice guideline dissemination and implementation (D&I) committee, composed of interprofessional diabetes providers from across the country (some of whom contributed to writing the guideline but many of whom did not), was organized by Diabetes Canada to develop strategies for both people with diabetes and providers, hoping to support translating evidence-based recommendations into practice. Evaluation of the effects of these efforts is ongoing.7

Carb Manager is the preferred food app for Pamala Moberly, 56, a retired missionary in Tifton, Georgia. “I like that it helps me keep track of total carbs, net carbs, fiber, proteins, and fats. I can even make my own recipes in this app, and it will calculate all of those numbers,” she says. She uses the free version, but adding the subscription service allows you to also enter blood glucose values. (The current subscription price is $8.49 per month or $39.99 per year.)
Keep your diabetes under control by tracking your sugar levels and other factors that influence how you feel. Diabetes:M delivers one-click diabetes management by calculating normal and prolonged insulin boluses and offering an extensive nutrition database. You can set reminders to check your blood sugar or log exercise time. Best of all, it works with different glucometers and insulin pumps to analyze values from imported data.
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