Clearly separate from the characteristic lack of acute insulin secretion in response to increase in glucose supply is the matter of total mass of β-cells. The former determines the immediate metabolic response to eating, whereas the latter places a long-term limitation on total possible insulin response. Histological studies of the pancreas in type 2 diabetes consistently show an ∼50% reduction in number of β-cells compared with normal subjects (66). β-Cell loss appears to increase as duration of diabetes increases (67). The process is likely to be regulated by apoptosis, a mechanism known to be increased by chronic exposure to increased fatty acid metabolites (68). Ceramides, which are synthesized directly from fatty acids, are likely mediators of the lipid effects on apoptosis (10,69). In light of new knowledge about β-cell apoptosis and rates of turnover during adult life, it is conceivable that removal of adverse factors could result in restoration of normal β-cell number, even late in the disease (66,70). Plasticity of lineage and transdifferentiation of human adult β-cells could also be relevant, and the evidence for this has recently been reviewed (71). β-Cell number following reversal of type 2 diabetes remains to be examined, but overall, it is clear that at least a critical mass of β-cells is not permanently damaged but merely metabolically inhibited.

Glucose Wiz keeps your blood sugar and medication logs with time.  Write notes, and see your numbers in chart view to show glucose tendency for before meals, 2 hours after meals and at bedtime.  Export the readings in PDF, CSV, or HTML f0rmat by email to anyone, and print the logs directly from this app. iCloud auto sync is available and you can track and monitor your family members’ readings.
Most cases of diabetes involve many genes, with each being a small contributor to an increased probability of becoming a type 2 diabetic.[10] If one identical twin has diabetes, the chance of the other developing diabetes within his lifetime is greater than 90%, while the rate for nonidentical siblings is 25–50%.[13] As of 2011, more than 36 genes had been found that contribute to the risk of type 2 diabetes.[38] All of these genes together still only account for 10% of the total heritable component of the disease.[38] The TCF7L2 allele, for example, increases the risk of developing diabetes by 1.5 times and is the greatest risk of the common genetic variants.[13] Most of the genes linked to diabetes are involved in beta cell functions.[13]

Formal recommendations on how to reverse type 2 diabetes in clinical practice must await further studies. In the meantime, it will be helpful for all individuals with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes to know that they have a metabolic syndrome that is reversible. They should know that if it is not reversed, the consequences for future health and cost of life insurance are dire, although these serious adverse effects must be balanced against the difficulties and privations associated with a substantial and sustained change in eating patterns. For many people, this may prove to be too high a price to pay, but for those who are strongly motivated to escape from type 2 diabetes, the new understanding gives clear direction. Physicians need to accept that long-term weight loss is achievable for a worthwhile proportion of patients (96). In the United States, diabetes costs $174 billion annually (97), and in the United Kingdom, it accounts for 10% of National Health Service expenditure. Even if only a small proportion of patients with type 2 diabetes return to normal glucose control, the savings in disease burden and economic cost will be enormous.
Gestational diabetes is high blood sugar that develops during pregnancy. Most of the time, you can control gestational diabetes through diet and exercise. It also typically resolves after the baby is delivered. Gestational diabetes can increase your risk for complications during pregnancy. It can also increase risk of type 2 diabetes development later in life for both mother and child.
Gestational diabetes is high blood sugar that develops during pregnancy. Most of the time, you can control gestational diabetes through diet and exercise. It also typically resolves after the baby is delivered. Gestational diabetes can increase your risk for complications during pregnancy. It can also increase risk of type 2 diabetes development later in life for both mother and child.
How long will diabetes stay away after weight loss? Long-term normal blood glucose control in previously diabetic individuals after bariatric surgery demonstrates that diabetes does not recur for up to 10 years, unless substantial weight gain occurs (86). These observations are consistent with the twin cycle hypothesis and the existence of a trigger level for adverse metabolic effects of fat in the pancreas. Hence, for a given individual with type 2 diabetes, reducing the liver and pancreas fat content below his or her personal trigger levels would be expected to result in a release from the fatty acid–mediated dysfunction. Individual tolerance of different degrees of fat exposure vary, and understanding this liposusceptibility will underpin the future understanding of genetically determined risk in any given environment. However, this should not obscure the central point: If a person has type 2 diabetes, there is more fat in the liver and pancreas than he or she can cope with.
Weight loss surgery in those who are obese is an effective measure to treat diabetes.[103] Many are able to maintain normal blood sugar levels with little or no medication following surgery[104] and long-term mortality is decreased.[105] There however is some short-term mortality risk of less than 1% from the surgery.[106] The body mass index cutoffs for when surgery is appropriate are not yet clear.[105] It is recommended that this option be considered in those who are unable to get both their weight and blood sugar under control.[107][108]
Heather Bartley, 46, a former mail carrier in Yale, Michigan, says she has been using MyFitnessPal for six years and finds it valuable for counting carbs. “It’s very user friendly and free,” she says. While the free version meets her needs, a subscription version unlocks more features. (The current subscription price is $9.99 per month or $49.99 per year.)
Diabetes mellitus is classified into four broad categories: type 1, type 2, gestational diabetes, and "other specific types".[10] The "other specific types" are a collection of a few dozen individual causes.[10] Diabetes is a more variable disease than once thought and people may have combinations of forms.[36] The term "diabetes", without qualification, usually refers to diabetes mellitus.

Diabetes that's triggered by pregnancy is called gestational diabetes (pregnancy, to some degree, leads to insulin resistance). It is often diagnosed in middle or late pregnancy. Because high blood sugar levels in a mother are circulated through the placenta to the baby, gestational diabetes must be controlled to protect the baby's growth and development.
The body obtains glucose from three main sources: the intestinal absorption of food; the breakdown of glycogen (glycogenolysis), the storage form of glucose found in the liver; and gluconeogenesis, the generation of glucose from non-carbohydrate substrates in the body.[59] Insulin plays a critical role in balancing glucose levels in the body. Insulin can inhibit the breakdown of glycogen or the process of gluconeogenesis, it can stimulate the transport of glucose into fat and muscle cells, and it can stimulate the storage of glucose in the form of glycogen.[59]
"The mySugr Junior App was developed to make managing diabetes easier for kids. It also enables parents to keep control over the therapy, even when they're not around and their child is at school or out with friends. The app resembles a game in which the children get points for every entry. The goal is to score a particular amount of points every day. This encourages kids to take care of their diabetes regularly.
Hyperglycemia or high blood sugar is a serious health problem for diabetics. There are two types of hyperglycemia, 1) fasting, and 2)postprandial or after meal hyperglycemia. Hyperglycemia can also lead to ketoacidosis or hyperglycemic hyperosmolar nonketotic syndrome (HHNS). There are a variety of causes of hyperglycemia in people with diabetes. Symptoms of high blood sugar may include increased thirst, headaches, blurred vision, and frequent urination.Treatment can be achieved through lifestyle changes or medications changes. Carefully monitoring blood glucose levels is key to prevention.
The pain of diabetic nerve damage may respond to traditional treatments with certain medications such as gabapentin (Neurontin), phenytoin (Dilantin), and carbamazepine (Tegretol) that are traditionally used in the treatment of seizure disorders. Amitriptyline (Elavil, Endep) and desipramine (Norpraminine) are medications that are traditionally used for depression. While many of these medications are not indicated specifically for the treatment of diabetes related nerve pain, they are used by physicians commonly.
People with glucose levels between normal and diabetic have impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) or insulin resistance. People with impaired glucose tolerance do not have diabetes, but are at high risk for progressing to diabetes. Each year, 1% to 5% of people whose test results show impaired glucose tolerance actually eventually develop diabetes. Weight loss and exercise may help people with impaired glucose tolerance return their glucose levels to normal. In addition, some physicians advocate the use of medications, such as metformin (Glucophage), to help prevent/delay the onset of overt diabetes.
A: Fasting plasma glucose and weight change 2 years after randomization either to gastric banding or to intensive medical therapy for weight loss and glucose control. Data plotted with permission from Dixon et al. (13). B: Early changes in fasting plasma glucose level following pancreatoduodenal bypass surgery. A decrease into the normal range was seen within 7 days. Reproduced with permission from Taylor (98).
Diabetes Education Services offers education and training to diabetes educators in the areas of both Type 1 and Type 2 Diabetes for the novice to the established professional. Whether you are training to be a Certified Diabetes Educator® (CDE®), practicing at an advanced level and interested in board certification, or a health care professional and/or Certified Diabetes Educator (CDE®) who needs continuing education hours to renew your license or CDE®, we have diabetes education information, resources and training; learning and teaching tools; and diabetes online courses available for continuing education (CE). Read our disclaimer for full disclosure.
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In 2017, 425 million people had diabetes worldwide,[8] up from an estimated 382 million people in 2013[17] and from 108 million in 1980.[101] Accounting for the shifting age structure of the global population, the prevalence of diabetes is 8.8% among adults, nearly double the rate of 4.7% in 1980.[8] [101] Type 2 makes up about 90% of the cases.[16][18] Some data indicate rates are roughly equal in women and men,[18] but male excess in diabetes has been found in many populations with higher type 2 incidence, possibly due to sex-related differences in insulin sensitivity, consequences of obesity and regional body fat deposition, and other contributing factors such as high blood pressure, tobacco smoking, and alcohol intake.[102][103]
Gestational diabetes is high blood sugar that develops during pregnancy. Most of the time, you can control gestational diabetes through diet and exercise. It also typically resolves after the baby is delivered. Gestational diabetes can increase your risk for complications during pregnancy. It can also increase risk of type 2 diabetes development later in life for both mother and child.
Sleep talking, formally known as somniloquy, is a sleep disorder defined as talking during sleep without being aware of it. Sleep talking can involve complicated dialogues or monologues, complete gibberish or mumbling. The good news is that for most people it is a rare and short-lived occurrence. Anyone can experience sleep talking, but the condition is more common in males...
Note: Income from other Charitable Activities in the audited financial statements has been included in special events fundraising. No government funding was reported on the charity's F2017 audited financial statements for either F2017 or F2016, although government funding was reported on its F2016 audited financial statements. Amortization has been removed from program, administrative and fundraising costs on a pro-rated basis. [1]
No major organization recommends universal screening for diabetes as there is no evidence that such a program improve outcomes.[55][56] Screening is recommended by the United States Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) in adults without symptoms whose blood pressure is greater than 135/80 mmHg.[57] For those whose blood pressure is less, the evidence is insufficient to recommend for or against screening.[57] There is no evidence that it changes the risk of death in this group of people.[56] They also recommend screening among those who are overweight and between the ages of 40 and 70.[58]

With a cheeky logo (“We make diabetes suck less”) and a cute cartoon monster to greet you in the app, mySugr almost makes logging your diabetes data fun. You can input and track blood glucose levels, meds, meals, and carb intake, and it syncs with the Apple Health app to collect physical activity and step data points. It can also sync with Accu-Check glucose meters and give you an estimated hemoglobin A1C.

The development of type 2 diabetes is caused by a combination of lifestyle and genetic factors.[24][26] While some of these factors are under personal control, such as diet and obesity, other factors are not, such as increasing age, female gender, and genetics.[10] Obesity is more common in women than men in many parts of Africa.[27] A lack of sleep has been linked to type 2 diabetes.[28] This is believed to act through its effect on metabolism.[28] The nutritional status of a mother during fetal development may also play a role, with one proposed mechanism being that of DNA methylation.[29] The intestinal bacteria Prevotella copri and Bacteroides vulgatus have been connected with type 2 diabetes.[30]

should not drive when their BG level is < 4.0 mmol/L (grade C, level III for type 1 diabetes; grade D, consensus for type 2 diabetes). If the BG level is < 4.0 mmol/L, they should not drive until at least 40 min after successful treatment of hypoglycemia has increased their BG level to at least 5.0 mmol/L (grade C, level III for type 1 diabetes; grade D, consensus for type 2 diabetes)

"A little diabetes monster accompanies the kids through the app and gives feedback on their entries. The child can enter data such as blood glucose levels, food and insulin or take a picture of his meals, but they can also request help whenever the parents are not around. All entries can be sent as a push message or email from within the app to the parents' phone. This way, the child can ask for feedback on calculating carbs or the insulin dose."