For our bodies to work properly we need to convert glucose (sugar) from food into energy. A hormone called insulin is essential for the conversion of glucose into energy. In people with diabetes, insulin is no longer produced or not produced in sufficient amounts by the body. When people with diabetes eat glucose, which is in foods such as breads, cereals, fruit and starchy vegetables, legumes, milk, yoghurt and sweets, it can’t be converted into energy.

These diabetes complications are related to blood vessel diseases and are generally classified into small vessel disease, such as those involving the eyes, kidneys and nerves (microvascular disease), and large vessel disease involving the heart and blood vessels (macrovascular disease). Diabetes accelerates hardening of the arteries (atherosclerosis) of the larger blood vessels, leading to coronary heart disease (angina or heart attack), strokes, and pain in the lower extremities because of lack of blood supply (claudication).

You can manually enter your blood glucose values in the app or buy their special cable to upload your glucometer readings to the app. For every glucose entry, add notes about medications, mood, exercise, and meals (you can even add a photo of your meal for a quick record), and then track your trends over the course of the day and long term. This app also has features for tracking blood pressure, weight, and A1C.
The earliest predictor of the development of type 2 diabetes is low insulin sensitivity in skeletal muscle, but it is important to recognize that this is not a distinct abnormality but rather part of the wide range expressed in the population. Those people in whom diabetes will develop simply have insulin sensitivity, mainly in the lowest population quartile (29). In prediabetic individuals, raised plasma insulin levels compensate and allow normal plasma glucose control. However, because the process of de novo lipogenesis is stimulated by higher insulin levels (38), the scene is set for hepatic fat accumulation. Excess fat deposition in the liver is present before the onset of classical type 2 diabetes (43,74–76), and in established type 2 diabetes, liver fat is supranormal (20). When ultrasound rather than magnetic resonance imaging is used, only more-severe degrees of steatosis are detected, and the prevalence of fatty liver is underestimated, with estimates of 70% of people with type 2 diabetes as having a fatty liver (76). Nonetheless, the prognostic power of merely the presence of a fatty liver is impressive of predicting the onset of type 2 diabetes. A large study of individuals with normal glucose tolerance at baseline showed a very low 8-year incidence of type 2 diabetes if fatty liver had been excluded at baseline, whereas if present, the hazard ratio for diabetes was 5.5 (range 3.6–8.5) (74). In support of this finding, a temporal progression from weight gain to raised liver enzyme levels and onward to hypertriglyceridemia and then glucose intolerance has been demonstrated (77).
Two types of diabetes were identified as separate conditions for the first time by the Indian physicians Sushruta and Charaka in 400–500 CE with one type being associated with youth and another type with being overweight.[108] The term "mellitus" or "from honey" was added by the Briton John Rolle in the late 1700s to separate the condition from diabetes insipidus, which is also associated with frequent urination.[108] Effective treatment was not developed until the early part of the 20th century, when Canadians Frederick Banting and Charles Herbert Best isolated and purified insulin in 1921 and 1922.[108] This was followed by the development of the long-acting insulin NPH in the 1940s.[108]

Health2Sync helps you log your blood sugar, blood pressure, weight, medication, diet, exercise, and even your mood through the app.  Health2Sync provides you helpful feedback based on your blood sugar records to help you manage diabetes.  View current and past trends in your health.  The app provides a diabetes support community.  Invite your friends and family members to join you on your journey. Premium Features of the app include a PDF report feature.


^ Sattar N, Preiss D, Murray HM, Welsh P, Buckley BM, de Craen AJ, Seshasai SR, McMurray JJ, Freeman DJ, Jukema JW, Macfarlane PW, Packard CJ, Stott DJ, Westendorp RG, Shepherd J, Davis BR, Pressel SL, Marchioli R, Marfisi RM, Maggioni AP, Tavazzi L, Tognoni G, Kjekshus J, Pedersen TR, Cook TJ, Gotto AM, Clearfield MB, Downs JR, Nakamura H, Ohashi Y, Mizuno K, Ray KK, Ford I (February 2010). "Statins and risk of incident diabetes: a collaborative meta-analysis of randomised statin trials". Lancet. 375 (9716): 735–42. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(09)61965-6. PMID 20167359.


This app allows you to talk with a registered dietitian who can help you with questions you may have or just someone when you need the extra support. This app helps you get a better understanding of the foods you consume and has its own database of over 700,000 different foods to better help you track your weight loss and diabetes. This app is available for $9.99.
In fact, high blood pressure is very common with diabetes, as two in three adults with diabetes also have high blood pressure, according to the American Diabetes Association (ADA). High blood pressure doesn't always have noticeable symptoms and you may not know you have it unless your doctor checks. Still, it can lead to serious complications including heart attack, stroke, eye problems, and kidney disease.
Type 1 diabetes is thought to be caused by an autoimmune reaction (the body attacks itself by mistake) that stops your body from making insulin. About 5% of the people who have diabetes have type 1. Symptoms of type 1 diabetes often develop quickly. It’s usually diagnosed in children, teens, and young adults. If you have type 1 diabetes, you’ll need to take insulin every day to survive. Currently, no one knows how to prevent type 1 diabetes.
Diabetes mellitus type 2 is characterized by high blood glucose in the context of insulin resistance and relative insulin deficiency.[52] This is in contrast to diabetes mellitus type 1 in which there is an absolute insulin deficiency due to destruction of islet cells in the pancreas and gestational diabetes mellitus that is a new onset of high blood sugars associated with pregnancy.[13] Type 1 and type 2 diabetes can typically be distinguished based on the presenting circumstances.[49] If the diagnosis is in doubt antibody testing may be useful to confirm type 1 diabetes and C-peptide levels may be useful to confirm type 2 diabetes,[53] with C-peptide levels normal or high in type 2 diabetes, but low in type 1 diabetes.[54]
During this 8-week study, β-cell function was tested by a gold standard method that used a stepped glucose infusion with subsequent arginine bolus (21). In type 2 diabetes, the glucose-induced initial rapid peak of insulin secretion (the first phase insulin response) typically is absent. This was confirmed at baseline in the study, but the first phase response increased gradually over 8 weeks of a very-low-calorie diet to become indistinguishable from that of age- and weight-matched nondiabetic control subjects. The maximum insulin response, as elicited by arginine bolus during hyperglycemia, also normalized. Pancreas fat content decreased gradually during the study period to become the same as that in the control group, a time course matching that of the increase in both first phase and total insulin secretion (Fig. 3). Fat content in the islets was not directly measured, although it is known that islets take up fat avidly (24) and that islet fat content closely reflects total pancreatic fat content in animal models (25). Although a cause-and-effect relationship between raised intraorgan fat levels and metabolic effect has not yet been proven, the time course data following the dietary intervention study are highly suggestive of a causal link (21).
Together with evidence of normalization of insulin secretion after bariatric surgery (84), insights into the behavior of the liver and pancreas during hypocaloric dieting lead to a hypothesis of the etiology and pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes (Fig. 6): The accumulation of fat in liver and secondarily in the pancreas will lead to self-reinforcing cycles that interact to bring about type 2 diabetes. Fatty liver leads to impaired fasting glucose metabolism and increases export of VLDL triacylglycerol (85), which increases fat delivery to all tissues, including the islets. The liver and pancreas cycles drive onward after diagnosis with steadily decreasing β-cell function. However, of note, observations of the reversal of type 2 diabetes confirm that if the primary influence of positive calorie balance is removed, then the processes are reversible (21).
Quality of evidence A prioritization process was conducted to focus the efforts of Diabetes Canada’s guideline dissemination and implementation efforts. The resulting identified key messages for FPs to consider when managing patients with type 2 diabetes are described. Evidence supporting the guideline recommendations ranges from levels I to IV and grades A to D.
^ Boussageon R, Supper I, Bejan-Angoulvant T, Kellou N, Cucherat M, Boissel JP, Kassai B, Moreau A, Gueyffier F, Cornu C (2012). Groop L, ed. "Reappraisal of metformin efficacy in the treatment of type 2 diabetes: a meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials". PLoS Medicine. 9 (4): e1001204. doi:10.1371/journal.pmed.1001204. PMC 3323508. PMID 22509138.
Type 2 diabetes is partly preventable by staying a normal weight, exercising regularly, and eating properly.[1] Treatment involves exercise and dietary changes.[1] If blood sugar levels are not adequately lowered, the medication metformin is typically recommended.[7][14] Many people may eventually also require insulin injections.[9] In those on insulin, routinely checking blood sugar levels is advised; however, this may not be needed in those taking pills.[15] Bariatric surgery often improves diabetes in those who are obese.[8][16]
Low testosterone (low-T) can be caused by conditions such as type 2 diabetes, obesity, liver or kidney disease, hormonal disorders, certain infections, and hypogonadism. Signs and symptoms that a person may have low-T include insomnia, increased body fat, weight gain, reduced muscle, infertility, decreased sex drive, depression, and worsening of congestive heart failure or sleep apnea.
Insulin is a hormone made by your pancreas that acts like a key to let blood sugar into the cells in your body for use as energy. If you have type 2 diabetes, cells don’t respond normally to insulin; this is called insulin resistance. Your pancreas makes more insulin to try to get cells to respond. Eventually your pancreas can’t keep up, and your blood sugar rises, setting the stage for prediabetes and type 2 diabetes. High blood sugar is damaging to the body and can cause other serious health problems, such as heart disease, vision loss, and kidney disease.
In type 1 diabetes, the pancreas loses its ability to make insulin because the body's immune system attacks and destroys the cells that produce insulin. No one knows exactly why this happens, but scientists think it has something to do with genes. But just getting the genes for diabetes isn't usually enough. A person probably would then have to be exposed to something else — like a virus — to get type 1 diabetes.
The role of physical activity must be considered. Increased levels of daily activity bring about decreases in liver fat stores (43), and a single bout of exercise substantially decreases both de novo lipogenesis (39) and plasma VLDL (92). Several studies demonstrated that calorie control combined with exercise is much more successful than calorie restriction alone (93). However, exercise programs alone produce no weight loss for overweight middle-aged people (94). The necessary initial major loss of body weight demands a substantial reduction in energy intake. After weight loss, steady weight is most effectively achieved by a combination of dietary restriction and physical activity. Both aerobic and resistance exercise are effective (95). The critical factor is sustainability.
Diabetes Canada has created several interactive clinical decision support tools to help reduce some of the barriers to implementing these recommendations, including an interactive tool to consider pharmacotherapy options for glycemic control that compares the relative advantages or limitations of different agents (guidelines.diabetes.ca/bloodglucoselowering/pharmacologyt2), an interactive tool for selecting agents for vascular protection (guidelines.diabetes.ca/vascularprotection/riskassessment), and a prescription for cardiovascular protection (guidelines.diabetes.ca/docs/resources/prescription-for-cardiovascular-protection-with-diabetes.pdf). People with diabetes also require routine monitoring (and relevant action) for neuropathy, nephropathy, and retinopathy, which can be facilitated with a flow sheet (guidelines.diabetes.ca/docs/cpg/Appendix-3.pdf).8
Studies have identified at least 150 DNA variations that are associated with the risk of developing type 2 diabetes. Most of these changes are common and are present both in people with diabetes and in those without. Each person has some variations that increase risk and others that reduce risk. It is the combination of these changes that helps determine a person's likelihood of developing the disease.
Type 2 diabetes is typically a chronic disease associated with a ten-year-shorter life expectancy.[10] This is partly due to a number of complications with which it is associated, including: two to four times the risk of cardiovascular disease, including ischemic heart disease and stroke; a 20-fold increase in lower limb amputations, and increased rates of hospitalizations.[10] In the developed world, and increasingly elsewhere, type 2 diabetes is the largest cause of nontraumatic blindness and kidney failure.[24] It has also been associated with an increased risk of cognitive dysfunction and dementia through disease processes such as Alzheimer's disease and vascular dementia.[25] Other complications include acanthosis nigricans, sexual dysfunction, and frequent infections.[23]
The majority of genetic variations associated with type 2 diabetes are thought to act by subtly changing the amount, timing, and location of gene activity (expression). These changes in expression affect genes involved in many aspects of type 2 diabetes, including the development and function of beta cells in the pancreas, the release and processing of insulin, and cells' sensitivity to the effects of insulin. However, for many of the variations that have been associated with type 2 diabetes, the mechanism by which they contribute to disease risk is unknown.
During this 8-week study, β-cell function was tested by a gold standard method that used a stepped glucose infusion with subsequent arginine bolus (21). In type 2 diabetes, the glucose-induced initial rapid peak of insulin secretion (the first phase insulin response) typically is absent. This was confirmed at baseline in the study, but the first phase response increased gradually over 8 weeks of a very-low-calorie diet to become indistinguishable from that of age- and weight-matched nondiabetic control subjects. The maximum insulin response, as elicited by arginine bolus during hyperglycemia, also normalized. Pancreas fat content decreased gradually during the study period to become the same as that in the control group, a time course matching that of the increase in both first phase and total insulin secretion (Fig. 3). Fat content in the islets was not directly measured, although it is known that islets take up fat avidly (24) and that islet fat content closely reflects total pancreatic fat content in animal models (25). Although a cause-and-effect relationship between raised intraorgan fat levels and metabolic effect has not yet been proven, the time course data following the dietary intervention study are highly suggestive of a causal link (21).

Dietary factors also influence the risk of developing type 2 DM. Consumption of sugar-sweetened drinks in excess is associated with an increased risk.[45][46] The type of fats in the diet is also important, with saturated fat and trans fats increasing the risk and polyunsaturated and monounsaturated fat decreasing the risk.[44] Eating lots of white rice, and other starches, also may increase the risk of diabetes.[47] A lack of physical activity is believed to cause 7% of cases.[48]
Founded in 1953, Diabetes Canada helps those affected by diabetes live healthy lives, prevent the onset and consequences of diabetes and discover a cure. In February 2017, Canadian Diabetes Association rebranded to the new name of Diabetes Canada. With its new name and logo, Diabetes Canada hopes to raise greater public awareness of diabetes and its implication and become the national voice for Canadians living with diabetes. The charity reports that between 200,000 and 350,000 Canadians have type 1 diabetes. An estimated 3.0 million people in Canada are diagnosed with type 2 diabetes while it reports another 7.2 million people are "at-risk" for diabetes. Diabetes Canada states the number of Canadians living with diabetes has doubled in the last 12 years.
Symptoms of type 1 diabetes can start quickly, in a matter of weeks. Symptoms of type 2 diabetes often develop slowly—over the course of several years—and can be so mild that you might not even notice them. Many people with type 2 diabetes have no symptoms. Some people do not find out they have the disease until they have diabetes-related health problems, such as blurred vision or heart trouble.
Diabetes can also affect your skin, the largest organ of your body. Along with dehydration, your body’s lack of moisture due to high blood sugar can cause the skin on your feet to dry and crack. It’s important to completely dry your feet after bathing or swimming. You can use petroleum jelly or gentle creams, but avoid letting these areas become too moist.

Abnormal cholesterol and triglyceride levels. If you have low levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL), or "good," cholesterol, your risk of type 2 diabetes is higher. Triglycerides are another type of fat carried in the blood. People with high levels of triglycerides have an increased risk of type 2 diabetes. Your doctor can let you know what your cholesterol and triglyceride levels are.
Your doctor may recommend working with a registered dietitian and a personal trainer to help you set up a diabetes weight loss plan. "Diet and exercise is always encouraged as the first line of therapy, but it works better for some people than others," says Sullivan. If you’re obese and having trouble losing weight with diet and exercise alone, your doctor may recommend medications to suppress your appetite and promote weight loss, or even gastric bypass surgery.
You are more likely to develop type 2 diabetes if you are not physically active and are overweight or obese. Extra weight sometimes causes insulin resistance and is common in people with type 2 diabetes. The location of body fat also makes a difference. Extra belly fat is linked to insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes, and heart and blood vessel disease. To see if your weight puts you at risk for type 2 diabetes, check out these Body Mass Index (BMI) charts.

^ Sarwar N, Gao P, Seshasai SR, Gobin R, Kaptoge S, Di Angelantonio E, Ingelsson E, Lawlor DA, Selvin E, Stampfer M, Stehouwer CD, Lewington S, Pennells L, Thompson A, Sattar N, White IR, Ray KK, Danesh J (June 2010). "Diabetes mellitus, fasting blood glucose concentration, and risk of vascular disease: a collaborative meta-analysis of 102 prospective studies". Lancet. 375 (9733): 2215–22. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(10)60484-9. PMC 2904878. PMID 20609967.
The guideline states that treatments should be added (as tolerated) to achieve hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), blood pressure, and cholesterol targets in accordance with patient preferences and goals. Since the last guideline update in 2013, the main change in this aspect of the guideline reflects new evidence that canagliflozin, empagliflozin, and liraglutide reduce the risk of cardiovascular events in patients who have a history of vascular disease.8 (Similar evidence for additional medications was not available at the time of guideline development.) The guideline states that evidence-based medications for vascular protection should be prescribed whenever appropriate:
All information contained on dLife.com is intended for informational and educational purposes only. The information is not intended to be a replacement or substitute for consultation with a qualified medical professional or for professional medical advice related to diabetes or another medical condition. Please contact your physician or medical professional with any questions and concerns about your medical condition. All content on dLife.com is created and reviewed in compliance with our Editorial Policy.
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