Symptoms of type 1 diabetes can start quickly, in a matter of weeks. Symptoms of type 2 diabetes often develop slowly—over the course of several years—and can be so mild that you might not even notice them. Many people with type 2 diabetes have no symptoms. Some people do not find out they have the disease until they have diabetes-related health problems, such as blurred vision or heart trouble.
Lack of blood flow can eventually affect your hands and feet and cause pain while you’re walking. This is called intermittent claudication. The narrowed blood vessels in your legs and feet may also cause problems in those areas. For example, your feet may feel cold or you may be unable to feel heat due to lack of sensation. This condition is known as peripheral neuropathy, which is a type of diabetic neuropathy that causes decreased sensation in the extremities. It’s particularly dangerous because it may prevent you from noticing an injury or infection.
Type 2 diabetes: Type 2 diabetes affects the way the body uses insulin. While the body still makes insulin, unlike in type I, the cells in the body do not respond to it as effectively as they once did. This is the most common type of diabetes, according to the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, and it has strong links with obesity.
Up to 40 percent of people with type 2 diabetes eventually develop kidney failure — the kidney's inability to filter waste and fluid from the blood, according to the National Kidney Foundation. As blood flows through tiny vessels in the kidneys, waste products are filtered out and leave the body through urine. Too much sugar in the blood can stress these filters, making it hard for the kidneys to work effectively. After a while, the filters can break down and leak protein into the urine. If kidney damage continues, you may need dialysis or a kidney transplant.
The Diabetes Control and Complications Trial (DCCT) was a clinical study conducted by the United States National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK) that was published in the New England Journal of Medicine in 1993. Test subjects all had diabetes mellitus type 1 and were randomized to a tight glycemic arm and a control arm with the standard of care at the time; people were followed for an average of seven years, and people in the treatment had dramatically lower rates of diabetic complications. It was as a landmark study at the time, and significantly changed the management of all forms of diabetes.
The Winnipeg Regional Health Authority acknowledges that it provides health services in facilities located on the original lands of Treaty 1 and on the homelands of the Metis Nation. WRHA respects that the First Nation treaties were made on these territories and acknowledge the harms and mistakes of the past, and we dedicate ourselves to collaborate in partnership with First Nation, Metis and Inuit people in the spirit of reconciliation.
The earliest sign of diabetic kidney disease is an increased excretion of albumin in the urine. This is present long before the usual tests done in your doctor's office show evidence of kidney disease, so it is important for you to have this test on a yearly basis. Weight gain and ankle swelling may occur. You will use the bathroom more at night. Your blood pressure may get too high. As a person with diabetes, you should have your blood, urine and blood pressure checked at least once a year. This will lead to better control of your disease and early treatment of high blood pressure and kidney disease. Maintaining control of your diabetes can lower your risk of developing severe kidney disease.
Dr. Charles Best, a co-inventor of medical insulin founded the Diabetic Association of Ontario in the late 1940s. As other provinces and territories started to form their own associations, it became clear that if the provincial branches combined their resources they could more effectively serve their membership. This culminated in the formation of the Canadian Diabetes Association in 1953.
People with diabetes should have an individualized plan for activity and nutrition. Intensive, group-based behavioural interventions can help patients to achieve their goals. Patients should be encouraged to seek nutrition counseling from a registered dietitian; in some regions dietitian consultations are available free of charge (eg, Ontario [www.unlockfood.ca/en/default.aspx], British Columbia [www.healthlinkbc.ca/dietitian-services], and Manitoba [www.wrha.mb.ca/prog/nutrition/files/204DADStickerEnglish.pdf]).
After one year (a pretty impressive length for a study like this), there were no differences in the hemoglobin A1C levels (the best way to monitor long-term blood glucose control) between the three groups. There were also no differences in the health-related quality of life measures for the patients. There were no differences in the number of times they experienced hypoglycemia, how much care they needed, and how many progressed to the need for insulin.
Diabetes Tracker – The American Journal of Preventive Medicine ranked this app, which has no free version, No. 1. It boasts an intensive and easy-to-follow educational component in addition to features for monitoring blood glucose, carbs, net carbs and more. Easy to see the big picture with daily and weekly reports. For some, it may be worth the extra expense.
Type 2 diabetes is more common in adults and accounts for around 90% of all diabetes cases. When you have type 2 diabetes, your body does not make good use of the insulin that it produces. The cornerstone of type 2 diabetes treatment is healthy lifestyle, including increased physical activity and healthy diet. However, over time most people with type 2 diabetes will require oral drugs and/or insulin to keep their blood glucose levels under control. Learn more.
Type 2 diabetes, which is more common, usually occurs in people over 40 and is called adult onset diabetes mellitus. It is also called non insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. In Type 2, your pancreas makes insulin, but your body does not use it properly. The high blood sugar level often can be controlled by following a diet and/or taking medication, although some patients must take insulin. Type 2 diabetes is particularly prevalent among African Americans, American Indians, Latin Americans and Asian Americans.
Transform your smartphone into a glucometer and get useful insights on blood sugar changes so you can best manage your diabetes. BeatO offers the resources and analytics to provide custom monitoring for all of your diabetes needs. It comes with the ability to contact a free diabetes educator service during the first three months when you purchase a BeatO Smartphone Glucometer.