In addition, getting too little sleep can increase your appetite and reduce your level of satiety, causing you to crave carbohydrates and sugary foods, in particular. Over time, indulging in these cravings or overeating, in general, can wreak havoc on your insulin and blood sugar levels, as well as your body weight. (Remember: Obesity is a major risk factor for type 2 diabetes.) Plus, when you’re short on sleep, you’re more likely to feel tired and less inclined to exercise, which is a problem because regular exercise helps with weight management and blood sugar control.
Kidney damage from diabetes is called diabetic nephropathy. The onset of kidney disease and its progression is extremely variable. Initially, diseased small blood vessels in the kidneys cause the leakage of protein in the urine. Later on, the kidneys lose their ability to cleanse and filter blood. The accumulation of toxic waste products in the blood leads to the need for dialysis. Dialysis involves using a machine that serves the function of the kidney by filtering and cleaning the blood. In patients who do not want to undergo chronic dialysis, kidney transplantation can be considered.
Studies have identified at least 150 DNA variations that are associated with the risk of developing type 2 diabetes. Most of these changes are common and are present both in people with diabetes and in those without. Each person has some variations that increase risk and others that reduce risk. It is the combination of these changes that helps determine a person's likelihood of developing the disease.

With a cheeky logo (“We make diabetes suck less”) and a cute cartoon monster to greet you in the app, mySugr almost makes logging your diabetes data fun. You can input and track blood glucose levels, meds, meals, and carb intake, and it syncs with the Apple Health app to collect physical activity and step data points. It can also sync with Accu-Check glucose meters and give you an estimated hemoglobin A1C.
Diabetes mellitus type 2 (also known as type 2 diabetes) is a long-term metabolic disorder that is characterized by high blood sugar, insulin resistance, and relative lack of insulin.[6] Common symptoms include increased thirst, frequent urination, and unexplained weight loss.[3] Symptoms may also include increased hunger, feeling tired, and sores that do not heal.[3] Often symptoms come on slowly.[6] Long-term complications from high blood sugar include heart disease, strokes, diabetic retinopathy which can result in blindness, kidney failure, and poor blood flow in the limbs which may lead to amputations.[1] The sudden onset of hyperosmolar hyperglycemic state may occur; however, ketoacidosis is uncommon.[4][5]
The 1989 "St. Vincent Declaration"[117][118] was the result of international efforts to improve the care accorded to those with diabetes. Doing so is important not only in terms of quality of life and life expectancy but also economically – expenses due to diabetes have been shown to be a major drain on health – and productivity-related resources for healthcare systems and governments.
▸ Family physicians are faced with a range of options when selecting the most appropriate treatment approach for people with diabetes. The challenge is compounded by the vast amount of new evidence that is disseminated to both clinicians and to people with diabetes. Guidelines are meant to summarize this evidence, but it is not feasible for FPs to implement every single guideline recommendation relevant to primary care.
Diabetes mellitus is a group of metabolic diseases characterized by high blood sugar (glucose) levels that result from defects in insulin secretion, or its action, or both. Diabetes mellitus, commonly referred to as diabetes (as it will be in this article) was first identified as a disease associated with "sweet urine," and excessive muscle loss in the ancient world. Elevated levels of blood glucose (hyperglycemia) lead to spillage of glucose into the urine, hence the term sweet urine.
Founded in 1953, the Canadian Diabetes Association (CDA) is a registered charity that works toward a world free from diabetes. They lead the fight against diabetes by helping those affected by diabetes to live healthy lives, preventing the onset and consequences of diabetes, and discovering a cure. Dr. Charles Best, co-discoverer of insulin, helped create the Diabetes Association of Ontario in the 1940s—which became the CDA in 1953. Diabetes is a chronic, often debilitating and sometimes fatal disease, in which the body either cannot produce insulin or cannot properly use the insulin it produces. Insulin is a hormone that controls the amount of glucose (sugar) in the blood. Diabetes leads to high blood sugar levels, which can damage organs, blood vessels and nerves. The body needs insulin to use sugar as an energy source.
Three key messages were identified from the 2018 guidelines as priorities for FPs: discussing opportunities to reduce the risk of diabetes complications, discussing opportunities to ensure safety and prevent hypoglycemia, and discussing progress on self-management goals and addressing barriers. A theme cutting across these key messages was the need to tailor discussions to the needs and preferences of each person. These important guideline recommendations are highlighted, along with information about relevant tools for implementing the recommendations in real-world practice.
Regular dental visits are important. Research suggests that treating gum disease can help improve blood sugar control in patients living with diabetes, decreasing the progression of the disease. Practicing good oral hygiene and having professional deep cleanings done by your dentist can help to lower your HbA1c. (This is a lab test that shows your average level of blood sugar over the previous three months. It indicates how well you are controlling your diabetes.)

Foodily is another popular app Apple has included on the list that doesn't have a specific diabetes application. Rather, the app helps users find, keep track of, and share recipes. As a "food social network" that lets people with similar tastes share recipes, though, the app could be helpful in creating a community of people with specific dietary needs and calorie requirements.
Fast forward a few months, and you’d find a much happier Dr. Clary – and much healthier patient. “The retinal bleeding had stopped, and her eyesight had begun to improve,” says the Virginia doctor. “I think her vision has very likely been spared because she was able to catch her uncontrolled diabetes in the early stages, before major damage to her retina.” 
Most cases of diabetes involve many genes, with each being a small contributor to an increased probability of becoming a type 2 diabetic.[10] If one identical twin has diabetes, the chance of the other developing diabetes within his lifetime is greater than 90%, while the rate for nonidentical siblings is 25–50%.[13] As of 2011, more than 36 genes had been found that contribute to the risk of type 2 diabetes.[38] All of these genes together still only account for 10% of the total heritable component of the disease.[38] The TCF7L2 allele, for example, increases the risk of developing diabetes by 1.5 times and is the greatest risk of the common genetic variants.[13] Most of the genes linked to diabetes are involved in beta cell functions.[13]
The following questions will help you to find out if you are at higher risk of having pre-diabetes or type 2 diabetes. Pre-diabetes is a condition where blood sugar levels are higher than normal, but not high enough to be diagnosed as diabetes. You can have pre-diabetes or undiagnosed type 2 diabetes without having any obvious warning signs or symptoms.

^ Imperatore G, Boyle JP, Thompson TJ, Case D, Dabelea D, Hamman RF, Lawrence JM, Liese AD, Liu LL, Mayer-Davis EJ, Rodriguez BL, Standiford D (December 2012). "Projections of type 1 and type 2 diabetes burden in the U.S. population aged <20 years through 2050: dynamic modeling of incidence, mortality, and population growth". Diabetes Care. 35 (12): 2515–20. doi:10.2337/dc12-0669. PMC 3507562. PMID 23173134. Archived from the original on 2016-08-14.


Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) resembles type 2 DM in several respects, involving a combination of relatively inadequate insulin secretion and responsiveness. It occurs in about 2–10% of all pregnancies and may improve or disappear after delivery.[49] However, after pregnancy approximately 5–10% of women with GDM are found to have DM, most commonly type 2.[49] GDM is fully treatable, but requires careful medical supervision throughout the pregnancy. Management may include dietary changes, blood glucose monitoring, and in some cases, insulin may be required.

^ Palmer SC, Mavridis D, Nicolucci A, Johnson DW, Tonelli M, Craig JC, Maggo J, Gray V, De Berardis G, Ruospo M, Natale P, Saglimbene V, Badve SV, Cho Y, Nadeau-Fredette AC, Burke M, Faruque L, Lloyd A, Ahmad N, Liu Y, Tiv S, Wiebe N, Strippoli GF (July 2016). "Comparison of Clinical Outcomes and Adverse Events Associated With Glucose-Lowering Drugs in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes: A Meta-analysis". JAMA. 316 (3): 313–24. doi:10.1001/jama.2016.9400. PMID 27434443.
Type 2 diabetes does not have a clear pattern of inheritance, although many affected individuals have at least one close family member, such as a parent or sibling, with the disease. The risk of developing type 2 diabetes increases with the number of affected family members. The increased risk is likely due in part to shared genetic factors, but it is also related to lifestyle influences (such as eating and exercise habits) that are shared by members of a family.
Normally, blood glucose levels are tightly controlled by insulin, a hormone produced by the pancreas. Insulin lowers the blood glucose level. When the blood glucose elevates (for example, after eating food), insulin is released from the pancreas to normalize the glucose level by promoting the uptake of glucose into body cells. In patients with diabetes, the absence of insufficient production of or lack of response to insulin causes hyperglycemia. Diabetes is a chronic medical condition, meaning that although it can be controlled, it lasts a lifetime.
SparkPeople bills itself as “your personal diet and lifestyle coach,” helping you track small details but also offer a bird's eye view of your wellness. You track your data using its food database, bar-code scanner, and exercise logs. It will sync with many fitness trackers and has built-in videos with exercise demonstrations, as well as a meal-planning function.

What are symptoms of type 2 diabetes in children? Type 2 diabetes is becoming increasingly common in children, and this is linked to a rise in obesity. However, the condition can be difficult to detect in children because it develops gradually. Symptoms, treatment, and prevention of type 2 diabetes are similar in children and adults. Learn more here. Read now


Dr. Shiel received a Bachelor of Science degree with honors from the University of Notre Dame. There he was involved in research in radiation biology and received the Huisking Scholarship. After graduating from St. Louis University School of Medicine, he completed his Internal Medicine residency and Rheumatology fellowship at the University of California, Irvine. He is board-certified in Internal Medicine and Rheumatology.
Stream a variety of exercise routines to get you moving and motivated! GlucoseZone™ is a digital exercise program that provides you with personalized exercise guidance and support designed to help you achieve the diabetes and fitness results you want. American Diabetes Association members receive an exclusive discount on their GlucoseZone subscription when they sign up using their ADA member ID!
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