Pros: Sugar Sense provides a community support forum for people with type 2 diabetes and offers diabetes prevention information. The app works with iHealth’s Smart Gluco-Monitoring System and its iHealth app, but only on Apple devices. It pulls data from the My Diet Diary app and from fitness trackers such as FitBit, Jawbone, and iHealth, and it sends data to Apple’s Health app.
Gestational diabetes develops in pregnant women who have never had diabetes. If you have gestational diabetes, your baby could be at higher risk for health problems. Gestational diabetes usually goes away after your baby is born but increases your risk for type 2 diabetes later in life. Your baby is more likely to have obesity as a child or teen, and more likely to develop type 2 diabetes later in life too.
^ Jump up to: a b c Maruthur NM, Tseng E, Hutfless S, Wilson LM, Suarez-Cuervo C, Berger Z, Chu Y, Iyoha E, Segal JB, Bolen S (June 2016). "Diabetes Medications as Monotherapy or Metformin-Based Combination Therapy for Type 2 Diabetes: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis". Annals of Internal Medicine. 164 (11): 740–51. doi:10.7326/M15-2650. PMID 27088241.
^ Sattar N, Preiss D, Murray HM, Welsh P, Buckley BM, de Craen AJ, Seshasai SR, McMurray JJ, Freeman DJ, Jukema JW, Macfarlane PW, Packard CJ, Stott DJ, Westendorp RG, Shepherd J, Davis BR, Pressel SL, Marchioli R, Marfisi RM, Maggioni AP, Tavazzi L, Tognoni G, Kjekshus J, Pedersen TR, Cook TJ, Gotto AM, Clearfield MB, Downs JR, Nakamura H, Ohashi Y, Mizuno K, Ray KK, Ford I (February 2010). "Statins and risk of incident diabetes: a collaborative meta-analysis of randomised statin trials". Lancet. 375 (9716): 735–42. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(09)61965-6. PMID 20167359.
The body’s immune system is responsible for fighting off foreign invaders, like harmful viruses and bacteria. In people with type 1 diabetes, the immune system mistakes the body’s own healthy cells for foreign invaders. The immune system attacks and destroys the insulin-producing beta cells in the pancreas. After these beta cells are destroyed, the body is unable to produce insulin.
The guideline states that treatments should be added (as tolerated) to achieve hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), blood pressure, and cholesterol targets in accordance with patient preferences and goals. Since the last guideline update in 2013, the main change in this aspect of the guideline reflects new evidence that canagliflozin, empagliflozin, and liraglutide reduce the risk of cardiovascular events in patients who have a history of vascular disease.8 (Similar evidence for additional medications was not available at the time of guideline development.) The guideline states that evidence-based medications for vascular protection should be prescribed whenever appropriate:
Management of type 2 diabetes focuses on lifestyle interventions, lowering other cardiovascular risk factors, and maintaining blood glucose levels in the normal range. Self-monitoring of blood glucose for people with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes may be used in combination with education, although the benefit of self-monitoring in those not using multi-dose insulin is questionable. In those who do not want to measure blood levels, measuring urine levels may be done. Managing other cardiovascular risk factors, such as hypertension, high cholesterol, and microalbuminuria, improves a person's life expectancy. Decreasing the systolic blood pressure to less than 140 mmHg is associated with a lower risk of death and better outcomes. Intensive blood pressure management (less than 130/80 mmHg) as opposed to standard blood pressure management (less than 140-160 mmHg systolic to 85–100 mmHg diastolic) results in a slight decrease in stroke risk but no effect on overall risk of death.
Health2Sync helps you log your blood sugar, blood pressure, weight, medication, diet, exercise, and even your mood through the app. Health2Sync provides you helpful feedback based on your blood sugar records to help you manage diabetes. View current and past trends in your health. The app provides a diabetes support community. Invite your friends and family members to join you on your journey. Premium Features of the app include a PDF report feature.
The number of people with diabetes is rising, both in Canada and around the world. Here in Canada, about 3.4 million have diabetes: that’s just over 9% of our total population. Unfortunately, that number is expected to rise. Diabetes Canada estimates that by 2025, 5 million people (12% of the population) will have diabetes. Around the world, the numbers are similarly gloomy. The World Health Organization estimates that the prevalence of diabetes in people older than 18 years of age rose from 4.7% in 1980 to 8.5% in 2014.
At present, the American Diabetes Association does not recommend general screening of the population for type 1 diabetes, though screening of high risk individuals, such as those with a first degree relative (sibling or parent) with type 1 diabetes should be encouraged. Type 1 diabetes tends to occur in young, lean individuals, usually before 30 years of age; however, older patients do present with this form of diabetes on occasion. This subgroup is referred to as latent autoimmune diabetes in adults (LADA). LADA is a slow, progressive form of type 1 diabetes. Of all the people with diabetes, only approximately 10% have type 1 diabetes and the remaining 90% have type 2 diabetes.
Clearly separate from the characteristic lack of acute insulin secretion in response to increase in glucose supply is the matter of total mass of β-cells. The former determines the immediate metabolic response to eating, whereas the latter places a long-term limitation on total possible insulin response. Histological studies of the pancreas in type 2 diabetes consistently show an ∼50% reduction in number of β-cells compared with normal subjects (66). β-Cell loss appears to increase as duration of diabetes increases (67). The process is likely to be regulated by apoptosis, a mechanism known to be increased by chronic exposure to increased fatty acid metabolites (68). Ceramides, which are synthesized directly from fatty acids, are likely mediators of the lipid effects on apoptosis (10,69). In light of new knowledge about β-cell apoptosis and rates of turnover during adult life, it is conceivable that removal of adverse factors could result in restoration of normal β-cell number, even late in the disease (66,70). Plasticity of lineage and transdifferentiation of human adult β-cells could also be relevant, and the evidence for this has recently been reviewed (71). β-Cell number following reversal of type 2 diabetes remains to be examined, but overall, it is clear that at least a critical mass of β-cells is not permanently damaged but merely metabolically inhibited.
Diabetes mellitus is a chronic disease, for which there is no known cure except in very specific situations. Management concentrates on keeping blood sugar levels as close to normal, without causing low blood sugar. This can usually be accomplished with a healthy diet, exercise, weight loss, and use of appropriate medications (insulin in the case of type 1 diabetes; oral medications, as well as possibly insulin, in type 2 diabetes).
Managing your blood glucose, blood pressure, and cholesterol, and quitting smoking if you smoke, are important ways to manage your type 2 diabetes. Lifestyle changes that include planning healthy meals, limiting calories if you are overweight, and being physically active are also part of managing your diabetes. So is taking any prescribed medicines. Work with your health care team to create a diabetes care plan that works for you.
When you hear the word “diabetes,” your first thought is likely about high blood sugar. Blood sugar is an often-underestimated component of your health. When it’s out of whack over a long period of time, it could develop into diabetes. Diabetes affects your body’s ability to produce or use insulin, a hormone that allows your body to turn glucose (sugar) into energy. Here’s what symptoms may occur to your body when diabetes takes effect.
One of the key factors in Joslin’s treatment of diabetes is tight blood glucose control, so be certain that your treatment helps get your blood glucose readings as close to normal as safely possible. Patients should discuss with their doctors what their target blood glucose range is. It is also important to determine what your goal is for A1C readings (a test that determines how well your diabetes is controlled over the past 2-3 months). By maintaining blood glucose in the desired range, you’ll likely avoid many of the complications some people with diabetes face.
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On top of tracking your blood glucose and meals (with a nutrition database and bar-code scanner), the Diabetes:M app will calculate insulin boluses for you. Through the Apple Health app, Diabetes:M will sync with other devices, including glucose meters, Fitbit, Garmin, and many others. You’ll need to pay extra for the subscription to access the full food database, sync multiple devices, and get rid of the ads. (The current subscription cost is $4.99 per month or $49.99 per year.)
In those with impaired glucose tolerance, diet and exercise either alone or in combination with metformin or acarbose may decrease the risk of developing diabetes. Lifestyle interventions are more effective than metformin. A 2017 review found that, long term, lifestyle changes decreased the risk by 28%, while medication does not reduce risk after withdrawal. While low vitamin D levels are associated with an increased risk of diabetes, correcting the levels by supplementing vitamin D3 does not improve that risk.
Exposure to certain viral infections (mumps and Coxsackie viruses) or other environmental toxins may serve to trigger abnormal antibody responses that cause damage to the pancreas cells where insulin is made. Some of the antibodies seen in type 1 diabetes include anti-islet cell antibodies, anti-insulin antibodies and anti-glutamic decarboxylase antibodies. These antibodies can be detected in the majority of patients, and may help determine which individuals are at risk for developing type 1 diabetes.
Dr. Charles Best, a co-inventor of medical insulin founded the Diabetic Association of Ontario in the late 1940s. As other provinces and territories started to form their own associations, it became clear that if the provincial branches combined their resources they could more effectively serve their membership. This culminated in the formation of the Canadian Diabetes Association in 1953.
Selected high-priority type 2 diabetes recommendations and relevant tools for FPs: Highlighted recommendations were prioritized for dissemination by those involved in preparing this review. They are not presented in any particular order and are not necessarily the most important recommendations for a given practice or patient; the full guideline is available at guidelines.diabetes.ca.
You can upgrade to a Pro version of this app for 2.99 a month or 27.99 per year and you’ll gain more information on blood sugar reminders, meals. You can create a PDF or Excel file to share your results and progress with you doctor. If you’d like to upgrade even further and get your very own personal certified diabetes educator, you can do so for 19.99 a month or 199.99 for the year.
As your kidneys fail, your blood urea nitrogen (BUN) levels will rise as well as the level of creatinine in your blood. You may also experience nausea, vomiting, a loss of appetite, weakness, increasing fatigue, itching, muscle cramps (especially in your legs) and anemia (a low blood count). You may find you need less insulin. This is because diseased kidneys cause less breakdown of insulin. If you develop any of these signs, call your doctor.
Kidney damage from diabetes is called diabetic nephropathy. The onset of kidney disease and its progression is extremely variable. Initially, diseased small blood vessels in the kidneys cause the leakage of protein in the urine. Later on, the kidneys lose their ability to cleanse and filter blood. The accumulation of toxic waste products in the blood leads to the need for dialysis. Dialysis involves using a machine that serves the function of the kidney by filtering and cleaning the blood. In patients who do not want to undergo chronic dialysis, kidney transplantation can be considered.
Diabetes is a serious complex condition which can affect the entire body. Diabetes requires daily self care and if complications develop, diabetes can have a significant impact on quality of life and can reduce life expectancy. While there is currently no cure for diabetes, you can live an enjoyable life by learning about the condition and effectively managing it.
Diabetes can also affect your skin, the largest organ of your body. Along with dehydration, your body’s lack of moisture due to high blood sugar can cause the skin on your feet to dry and crack. It’s important to completely dry your feet after bathing or swimming. You can use petroleum jelly or gentle creams, but avoid letting these areas become too moist.
This app, named one of the top diabetes apps by Healthline from 2015 to 2017, offers two options: basic and pro. The basic app function is designed to help manage blood glucose patterns for individuals with Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes. There is a section to enter data regarding diet, medications, and blood glucose levels. The upgraded pro version provides features like blood glucose reminders, multi-device syncing, basal rates for pump usersm and priority support. MySugr coaching is one of the newest features by which users can receive personalized advice from certified diabetes educators.
Cons: Glucose Buddy does not sync with meters, continuous glucose monitors (CGMs), or pumps. Both Android and Apple users can access glucosebuddy.com, but only Apple users can sync their app with the website; Android users have to manually input their log on the web portal. There is no way to back up your data, so if you lose your phone and you haven’t manually entered logbook data on the website (or if your Apple device didn’t sync), you’ll have to start over. A built-in calorie tracker and food database is planned, but no release date has been set yet.