As many as 27 million American women have prediabetes.17 If you have prediabetes, you can make healthy changes, such as doing some type of physical activity on most days, to lower your risk of getting diabetes and return to normal blood sugar levels. Losing 7% of your body weight (or 14 pounds if you weigh 200 pounds) can lower your risk for type 2 diabetes by more than half. If you have prediabetes, get your blood glucose checked every year by a doctor or nurse.4


Still, these choices are just the beginning, and there are lots of other options to explore. We’ve listed our top picks for several types of apps, focusing on those that have numerous and consistent good reviews from users and have been updated recently. Many offer similar features, so you may want to download a few and see which is easiest for you to use.

The progression of nephropathy in patients can be significantly slowed by controlling high blood pressure, and by aggressively treating high blood sugar levels. Angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACE inhibitors) or angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) used in treating high blood pressure may also benefit kidney disease in patients with diabetes.
This app allows you to talk with a registered dietitian who can help you with questions you may have or just someone when you need the extra support. This app helps you get a better understanding of the foods you consume and has its own database of over 700,000 different foods to better help you track your weight loss and diabetes. This app is available for $9.99.
Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) resembles type 2 DM in several respects, involving a combination of relatively inadequate insulin secretion and responsiveness. It occurs in about 2–10% of all pregnancies and may improve or disappear after delivery.[49] However, after pregnancy approximately 5–10% of women with GDM are found to have DM, most commonly type 2.[49] GDM is fully treatable, but requires careful medical supervision throughout the pregnancy. Management may include dietary changes, blood glucose monitoring, and in some cases, insulin may be required.
Reversal of type 2 diabetes to normal metabolic control by either bariatric surgery or hypocaloric diet allows for the time sequence of underlying pathophysiologic mechanisms to be observed. In reverse order, the same mechanisms are likely to determine the events leading to the onset of hyperglycemia and permit insight into the etiology of type 2 diabetes. Within 7 days of instituting a substantial negative calorie balance by either dietary intervention or bariatric surgery, fasting plasma glucose levels can normalize. This rapid change relates to a substantial fall in liver fat content and return of normal hepatic insulin sensitivity. Over 8 weeks, first phase and maximal rates of insulin secretion steadily return to normal, and this change is in step with steadily decreasing pancreatic fat content. The difference in time course of these two processes is striking. Recent information on the intracellular effects of excess lipid intermediaries explains the likely biochemical basis, which simplifies both the basic understanding of the condition and the concepts used to determine appropriate management. Recent large, long-duration population studies on time course of plasma glucose and insulin secretion before the diagnosis of diabetes are consistent with this new understanding. Type 2 diabetes has long been regarded as inevitably progressive, requiring increasing numbers of oral hypoglycemic agents and eventually insulin, but it is now certain that the disease process can be halted with restoration of normal carbohydrate and fat metabolism. Type 2 diabetes can be understood as a potentially reversible metabolic state precipitated by the single cause of chronic excess intraorgan fat.
Your doctor will test your blood sugar every 3 months with an A1C test. Also, you can test your blood sugar on your own throughout the day. You will need to use a blood glucose monitor to check it on your own. This involves pricking your finger for blood and putting a test strip in the blood to get the results. If your blood sugar gets too low, you might feel tired, experience problems with muscle coordination, sweat, have difficulty thinking or speaking clearly, twitch, feel like you’re going to faint, become pale, lose consciousness, or have a seizure. At the earliest sign of any of these symptoms, eat or drink something that will raise your blood sugar fast. This could include candy, juice, milk, or raisins. If you don’t feel better in 15 minutes or if monitoring shows that your blood sugar level is still too low, eat or drink another item to raise your blood sugar fast. Always keep a supply of these items on hand for emergencies.
Type 2 diabetes is typically a chronic disease associated with a ten-year-shorter life expectancy.[10] This is partly due to a number of complications with which it is associated, including: two to four times the risk of cardiovascular disease, including ischemic heart disease and stroke; a 20-fold increase in lower limb amputations, and increased rates of hospitalizations.[10] In the developed world, and increasingly elsewhere, type 2 diabetes is the largest cause of nontraumatic blindness and kidney failure.[24] It has also been associated with an increased risk of cognitive dysfunction and dementia through disease processes such as Alzheimer's disease and vascular dementia.[25] Other complications include acanthosis nigricans, sexual dysfunction, and frequent infections.[23]
Researchers do not know the exact causes of type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Researchers do know that inheriting certain genes from your family can raise your risk for developing diabetes. Obesity is also a major risk factor for type 2 diabetes. Smoking can also cause type 2 diabetes. And the more you smoke the higher your risk for type 2 diabetes and other serious health problems if you already have diabetes.16
Prediabetes occurs when blood sugar levels are higher than they should be, but not high enough to officially be diagnosed as diabetes. Pre-diabetes greatly increases the risk of developing type 2 diabetes. The good news is that, if you have prediabetes, you can prevent or delay the onset of full-blown type 2 diabetes by making lifestyle changes. These include eating a healthy diet, reaching and maintaining a healthy weight, and exercising regularly.

Cons: Glucose Buddy does not sync with meters, continuous glucose monitors (CGMs), or pumps. Both Android and Apple users can access glucosebuddy.com, but only Apple users can sync their app with the website; Android users have to manually input their log on the web portal. There is no way to back up your data, so if you lose your phone and you haven’t manually entered logbook data on the website (or if your Apple device didn’t sync), you’ll have to start over. A built-in calorie tracker and food database is planned, but no release date has been set yet.
For our bodies to work properly we need to convert glucose (sugar) from food into energy. A hormone called insulin is essential for the conversion of glucose into energy. In people with diabetes, insulin is no longer produced or not produced in sufficient amounts by the body. When people with diabetes eat glucose, which is in foods such as breads, cereals, fruit and starchy vegetables, legumes, milk, yoghurt and sweets, it can’t be converted into energy.
^ Sarwar N, Gao P, Seshasai SR, Gobin R, Kaptoge S, Di Angelantonio E, Ingelsson E, Lawlor DA, Selvin E, Stampfer M, Stehouwer CD, Lewington S, Pennells L, Thompson A, Sattar N, White IR, Ray KK, Danesh J (June 2010). "Diabetes mellitus, fasting blood glucose concentration, and risk of vascular disease: a collaborative meta-analysis of 102 prospective studies". Lancet. 375 (9733): 2215–22. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(10)60484-9. PMC 2904878. PMID 20609967.
How long will diabetes stay away after weight loss? Long-term normal blood glucose control in previously diabetic individuals after bariatric surgery demonstrates that diabetes does not recur for up to 10 years, unless substantial weight gain occurs (86). These observations are consistent with the twin cycle hypothesis and the existence of a trigger level for adverse metabolic effects of fat in the pancreas. Hence, for a given individual with type 2 diabetes, reducing the liver and pancreas fat content below his or her personal trigger levels would be expected to result in a release from the fatty acid–mediated dysfunction. Individual tolerance of different degrees of fat exposure vary, and understanding this liposusceptibility will underpin the future understanding of genetically determined risk in any given environment. However, this should not obscure the central point: If a person has type 2 diabetes, there is more fat in the liver and pancreas than he or she can cope with.
Diabetic hyperglycemic hyperosmolar syndrome (HHS) occurs in type 2 diabetes. It involves very high blood glucose levels but no ketones. You might become dehydrated with this condition. You may even lose consciousness. HHS is most common in people whose diabetes is undiagnosed or who haven’t been able to control their diabetes. It can also be caused by a heart attack, stroke, or infection.
In 2017, 425 million people had diabetes worldwide,[8] up from an estimated 382 million people in 2013[17] and from 108 million in 1980.[101] Accounting for the shifting age structure of the global population, the prevalence of diabetes is 8.8% among adults, nearly double the rate of 4.7% in 1980.[8] [101] Type 2 makes up about 90% of the cases.[16][18] Some data indicate rates are roughly equal in women and men,[18] but male excess in diabetes has been found in many populations with higher type 2 incidence, possibly due to sex-related differences in insulin sensitivity, consequences of obesity and regional body fat deposition, and other contributing factors such as high blood pressure, tobacco smoking, and alcohol intake.[102][103]

Choosing Wisely, an educational campaign aiming to reduce unnecessary medical tests and procedures, advises against routine home glucose monitoring for patients with Type 2 diabetes who are not on insulin. It says there is no benefit, and that there are potential harms (a study has shown an association with increased anxiety and depression). This argument is supported by the American Academy of Family Physicians, the Society of General Internal Medicine and the Endocrine Society.

"Brittle" diabetes, also known as unstable diabetes or labile diabetes, is a term that was traditionally used to describe the dramatic and recurrent swings in glucose levels, often occurring for no apparent reason in insulin-dependent diabetes. This term, however, has no biologic basis and should not be used.[38] Still, type 1 diabetes can be accompanied by irregular and unpredictable high blood sugar levels, frequently with ketosis, and sometimes with serious low blood sugar levels. Other complications include an impaired counterregulatory response to low blood sugar, infection, gastroparesis (which leads to erratic absorption of dietary carbohydrates), and endocrinopathies (e.g., Addison's disease).[38] These phenomena are believed to occur no more frequently than in 1% to 2% of persons with type 1 diabetes.[39]


"It's never been easier to manage diabetes with all the technological stuff we have at our fingertips," said Steve Lisowski, who lives in Chicago. Lisowski has had type 2 diabetes for 15 years, and currently uses an insulin pump and a continuous glucose monitor to help manage his diabetes. He has used nutrition apps and an overall diabetes-management app.
A lot of diabetes apps are geared toward helping people with diabetes cook the best food for managing their condition. While not geared exclusively at people with diabetes, HealthyOut is about helping people eat at and order from restaurants while maintaining a diabetic-friendly diet. The user searches local restaurants with filters like "Low Carb," "Low Fat," and, their most popular filter, "Not a salad." According to the company, HealthyOut dishes have half the calories and half the fat compared to the average restaurant meal.
That’s a feature that Kelli Rush, 41, a homemaker in Fallon, Nevada, appreciates. She was diagnosed with type 2 diabetes in late 2017, and she’s since made huge strides in improving her A1C. She likes to see the estimated number in the app, and she says it closely matched the lab value when she had the blood test. “It’s nice to know that I’m making progress,” she says.

^ Zheng SL, Roddick AJ, Aghar-Jaffar R, Shun-Shin MJ, Francis D, Oliver N, Meeran K (April 2018). "Association Between Use of Sodium-Glucose Cotransporter 2 Inhibitors, Glucagon-like Peptide 1 Agonists, and Dipeptidyl Peptidase 4 Inhibitors With All-Cause Mortality in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis". JAMA. 319 (15): 1580–1591. doi:10.1001/jama.2018.3024. PMC 5933330. PMID 29677303.
^ Jump up to: a b c Vos T, Flaxman AD, Naghavi M, Lozano R, Michaud C, Ezzati M, et al. (December 2012). "Years lived with disability (YLDs) for 1160 sequelae of 289 diseases and injuries 1990–2010: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2010". Lancet. 380 (9859): 2163–96. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(12)61729-2. PMC 6350784. PMID 23245607.
Maddy Arnstein has lived with T1D for over 50 years. She became involved with JDRF when she saw the dramatic difference technologies like the insulin pump could have on her life. Maddy was quickly drawn to advocacy—initially to help secure continued renewal of funding for the Special Diabetes Program (SDP). But once she started using a continuous glucose monitor, she dedicated herself to fighting for Medicare coverage.
In type 2 diabetes, there also is a steady decline of beta cells that adds to the process of elevated blood sugars. Essentially, if someone is resistant to insulin, the body can, to some degree, increase production of insulin and overcome the level of resistance. After time, if production decreases and insulin cannot be released as vigorously, hyperglycemia develops.
×