With this technology she is also able to monitor her daughter’s blood sugar levels remotely. Hoover says, “She also has a Dexcom Continuous Glucose Monitor with Share. This monitors her blood sugars through a site that we change weekly (sometimes longer), this updates every 5 minutes and is usually within 20 ml of her actual blood sugar. The CGM communicates her blood sugar numbers to a cell phone through the Share app!”


There are a number of rare cases of diabetes that arise due to an abnormality in a single gene (known as monogenic forms of diabetes or "other specific types of diabetes").[10][13] These include maturity onset diabetes of the young (MODY), Donohue syndrome, and Rabson–Mendenhall syndrome, among others.[10] Maturity onset diabetes of the young constitute 1–5% of all cases of diabetes in young people.[39]
The study, Economic Costs of Diabetes in the U.S. in 2017, was commissioned by the Association and addresses the increased financial burden, health resources used and lost productivity associated with diabetes in 2017. The study includes a detailed breakdown of costs along gender, racial and ethnic lines, and also includes a breakdown of costs on a state-by-state basis.
Most people who develop type 2 diabetes first have insulin resistance, a condition in which the body's cells use insulin less efficiently than normal. As insulin resistance develops, more and more insulin is needed to keep blood sugar levels in the normal range. To keep up with the increasing need, insulin-producing cells in the pancreas (called beta cells) make larger amounts of insulin. Over time, the beta cells become less able to respond to blood sugar changes, leading to an insulin shortage that prevents the body from reducing blood sugar levels effectively. Most people have some insulin resistance as they age, but inadequate exercise and excessive weight gain make it worse, greatly increasing the likelihood of developing type 2 diabetes.
Rates of type 2 diabetes have increased markedly since 1960 in parallel with obesity.[17] As of 2015 there were approximately 392 million people diagnosed with the disease compared to around 30 million in 1985.[11][18] Typically it begins in middle or older age,[6] although rates of type 2 diabetes are increasing in young people.[19][20] Type 2 diabetes is associated with a ten-year-shorter life expectancy.[10] Diabetes was one of the first diseases described.[21] The importance of insulin in the disease was determined in the 1920s.[22]
A second oral agent of another class or insulin may be added if metformin is not sufficient after three months.[78] Other classes of medications include: sulfonylureas, thiazolidinediones, dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors, SGLT2 inhibitors, and glucagon-like peptide-1 analogs.[78] As of 2015 there was no significant difference between these agents.[78] A 2018 review found that SGLT2 inhibitors may be better than glucagon-like peptide-1 analogs or dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors.[94]

You can live a normal life with well-controlled diabetes. However, you have to pay attention to your diet, weight, exercise, and medicine. If you don’t control your diabetes, you will have too much glucose in your blood. This can lead to serious health problems, including heart disease and damage to the nerves and kidneys. These are known as diabetic complications. Complications include:
Dietary factors also influence the risk of developing type 2 diabetes. Consumption of sugar-sweetened drinks in excess is associated with an increased risk.[33][34] The type of fats in the diet are important, with saturated fats and trans fatty acids increasing the risk, and polyunsaturated and monounsaturated fat decreasing the risk.[26] Eating a lot of white rice appears to play a role in increasing risk.[35] A lack of exercise is believed to cause 7% of cases.[36] Persistent organic pollutants may play a role.[37]

The authors: David Kerr, MD, is the director of research and innovation at the William Sansum Diabetes Center in Santa Barbara, California, and the creator of ’Appy Feet, an app for people with painful diabetic neuropathy, as well as DiabetesTravel.org and ExCarbs.com—two free resources for people with diabetes. Charis Hoppe is a project coordinator at the William Sansum Diabetes Center for the Santa Barbara 1,000 project. Ceara Axelrod is a data analyst and clinical researcher at the William Sansum Diabetes Center.
The extent of weight loss required to reverse type 2 diabetes is much greater than conventionally advised. A clear distinction must be made between weight loss that improves glucose control but leaves blood glucose levels abnormal and weight loss of sufficient degree to normalize pancreatic function. The Belfast diet study provides an example of moderate weight loss leading to reasonably controlled, yet persistent diabetes. This study showed that a mean weight loss of 11 kg decreased fasting blood glucose levels from 10.4 to 7.0 mmol/L but that this abnormal level presaged the all-too-familiar deterioration of control (87).
Diabetes is one of the first diseases described[21] with an Egyptian manuscript from c. 1500 BCE mentioning "too great emptying of the urine."[112] The first described cases are believed to be of type 1 diabetes.[112] Indian physicians around the same time identified the disease and classified it as madhumeha or honey urine noting that the urine would attract ants.[112] The term "diabetes" or "to pass through" was first used in 230 BCE by the Greek Apollonius Of Memphis.[112] The disease was rare during the time of the Roman empire with Galen commenting that he had only seen two cases during his career.[112]

Inhalable insulin has been developed.[125] The original products were withdrawn due to side effects.[125] Afrezza, under development by the pharmaceuticals company MannKind Corporation, was approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for general sale in June 2014.[126] An advantage to inhaled insulin is that it may be more convenient and easy to use.[127]
Type 2 diabetes is due to insufficient insulin production from beta cells in the setting of insulin resistance.[13] Insulin resistance, which is the inability of cells to respond adequately to normal levels of insulin, occurs primarily within the muscles, liver, and fat tissue.[45] In the liver, insulin normally suppresses glucose release. However, in the setting of insulin resistance, the liver inappropriately releases glucose into the blood.[10] The proportion of insulin resistance versus beta cell dysfunction differs among individuals, with some having primarily insulin resistance and only a minor defect in insulin secretion and others with slight insulin resistance and primarily a lack of insulin secretion.[13]
Cons: Glucose Buddy does not sync with meters, continuous glucose monitors (CGMs), or pumps. Both Android and Apple users can access glucosebuddy.com, but only Apple users can sync their app with the website; Android users have to manually input their log on the web portal. There is no way to back up your data, so if you lose your phone and you haven’t manually entered logbook data on the website (or if your Apple device didn’t sync), you’ll have to start over. A built-in calorie tracker and food database is planned, but no release date has been set yet.
The body obtains glucose from three main sources: the intestinal absorption of food; the breakdown of glycogen (glycogenolysis), the storage form of glucose found in the liver; and gluconeogenesis, the generation of glucose from non-carbohydrate substrates in the body.[59] Insulin plays a critical role in balancing glucose levels in the body. Insulin can inhibit the breakdown of glycogen or the process of gluconeogenesis, it can stimulate the transport of glucose into fat and muscle cells, and it can stimulate the storage of glucose in the form of glycogen.[59]

Type 2 diabetes used to be called adult-onset diabetes or non-insulin dependent diabetes because it was diagnosed mainly in adults who did not require insulin to manage their condition. However, because more children are starting to be diagnosed with T2D, and insulin is used more frequently to help manage type 2 diabetes, referring to the condition as “adult-onset” or “non-insulin dependent” is no longer accurate.
A random blood sugar of greater than 11.1 mmol/l (200 mg/dl) in association with typical symptoms[23] or a glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) of ≥ 48 mmol/mol (≥ 6.5 DCCT %) is another method of diagnosing diabetes.[10] In 2009 an International Expert Committee that included representatives of the American Diabetes Association (ADA), the International Diabetes Federation (IDF), and the European Association for the Study of Diabetes (EASD) recommended that a threshold of ≥ 48 mmol/mol (≥ 6.5 DCCT %) should be used to diagnose diabetes.[49] This recommendation was adopted by the American Diabetes Association in 2010.[50] Positive tests should be repeated unless the person presents with typical symptoms and blood sugars >11.1 mmol/l (>200 mg/dl).[49]
Hypoglycemia means abnormally low blood sugar (glucose). In patients with diabetes, the most common cause of low blood sugar is excessive use of insulin or other glucose-lowering medications, to lower the blood sugar level in diabetic patients in the presence of a delayed or absent meal. When low blood sugar levels occur because of too much insulin, it is called an insulin reaction. Sometimes, low blood sugar can be the result of an insufficient caloric intake or sudden excessive physical exertion.
Rates of type 2 diabetes have increased markedly since 1960 in parallel with obesity.[17] As of 2015 there were approximately 392 million people diagnosed with the disease compared to around 30 million in 1985.[11][18] Typically it begins in middle or older age,[6] although rates of type 2 diabetes are increasing in young people.[19][20] Type 2 diabetes is associated with a ten-year-shorter life expectancy.[10] Diabetes was one of the first diseases described.[21] The importance of insulin in the disease was determined in the 1920s.[22]
Carb Manager is the preferred food app for Pamala Moberly, 56, a retired missionary in Tifton, Georgia. “I like that it helps me keep track of total carbs, net carbs, fiber, proteins, and fats. I can even make my own recipes in this app, and it will calculate all of those numbers,” she says. She uses the free version, but adding the subscription service allows you to also enter blood glucose values. (The current subscription price is $8.49 per month or $39.99 per year.)
Another emerging issue is the effect on public health of new laboratory based criteria, such as introducing the use of A1c for diagnosis of type 2 diabetes or for recognizing high risk for type 2 diabetes. These changes may impact the number of individuals with undiagnosed diabetes and facilitate the introduction of type 2 diabetes prevention at a public health level.
A second oral agent of another class or insulin may be added if metformin is not sufficient after three months.[78] Other classes of medications include: sulfonylureas, thiazolidinediones, dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors, SGLT2 inhibitors, and glucagon-like peptide-1 analogs.[78] As of 2015 there was no significant difference between these agents.[78] A 2018 review found that SGLT2 inhibitors may be better than glucagon-like peptide-1 analogs or dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors.[94]
Diabetes is a number of diseases that involve problems with the hormone insulin. Normally, the pancreas (an organ behind the stomach) releases insulin to help your body store and use the sugar and fat from the food you eat. Diabetes can occur when the pancreas produces very little or no insulin, or when the body does not respond appropriately to insulin. As yet, there is no cure. People with diabetes need to manage their disease to stay healthy.
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